<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
  • IP
  • TCP
  • UDP


IP , which stands for Internet Protocol , is the protocol that will be involved below the Application Layer to move our data between a client and a server. Beyond knowing that it exists, we probably don't need toconcern ourselves with the fact that IP is being used

In fact, in some situations, some other protocol could be used to move our data between a client and a server. As long as it works, we really don't care toomuch.

In a nutshell, IP is a network protocol that moves packets of data from a source to a destination. As the name implies, this is the protocol normally usedon the Internet.


It is sometimes important to be able to have confidence that all packets that make up a message arrive at the destination undamaged and in proper order.

The Transmission Control Protocol ( TCP ) was added to IP to give each end of a connection the ability to acknowledge receipt of IP packets and to request retransmission of corrupted or lost packets. Also TCP makes it possible to put the packets back together at the destination in the same order that they were sent.

Therefore, you will often hear people using both acronyms in the same breath, as in TCP/IP . The two work together to provide a reliable method of encapsulating a message into data packets, sending the packets to adestination, and reconstructing the message from the packets at the destination.


Sometimes it may not be critically important that all the packets arrive at the destination or that they arrive in the proper order. Further, sometimes, you maynot want to incur the time delays and overhead cost associated with those guarantees.

For example, if one computer is sending date and time information to another computer every 100 milliseconds, and the data in the packets is displayed on adigital clock as it is received, you might prefer that each packet make the trip as quickly as possible even if that means that occasionally a packet will belost or damaged.

The User Datagram Protocol ( UDP) is available to support this type of operation. UDP is often referred to as an unreliable protocol because there is no guarantee that a series of packets will arrive inthe right order, or that they will arrive at all.

As Java programmers, we have the choice of TCP or UDP , and we need to know enough about the characteristics of each to be able to makeinformed choices between them.

IP Addresses

We don't really need to know very much about IP to be able to use it, but we do need to know about the addressing scheme used in IP .

Every computer attached to an IP network has a unique address, typically consisting of four bytes or 32 bits ( IPv4 ) .

Thirty-two bits are sufficient to define a large number of unique addresses, but the manner in which addresses are allocated is wasteful, and many of theaddresses that have been allocated are not being used.

Efforts are underway to expand the number of possible unique addresses to a much larger number. The planned number is the number of unique addresses thatcan be represented with a 128-bit address. The new scheme is known as IPv6 .

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Object-oriented programming (oop) with java' conversation and receive update notifications?