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Several other trends may be observed across a period such as density, melting points and boiling points. These trends are not as obvious to see as the above trends and often show variations to the general trend.

Electron affinity and electronegativity also show some general trends across periods. Electron affinity can be thought of as how much an element wants electrons. Electron affinity generally increases from left to right across a period. Electronegativity is the tendency of atoms to attract electrons. The higher the electronegativity, the greater the atom attracts electrons. Electronegativity generally increases across a period (from left to right). Electronegativity and electron affinity will be covered in more detail in a later grade.

You may see periodic tables labeled with s-block, p-block, d-block and f-block. This is simply another way to group the elements. When we group elements like this we are simply noting which orbitals are being filled in each block. This method of grouping is not very useful to the work covered at this level.

Using the properties of the groups and the trends that we observe in certain properties (ionization energy, formation of halides and oxides, melting and boiling points, atomic diameter) we can predict the the properties of unknown elements. For example, the properties of the unfamiliar elements Francium (Fr), Barium (Ba), Astatine (At), and Xenon (Xe) can be predicted by knowing their position on the periodic table. Using the periodic table we can say: Francium (Group 1) is an alkali metal, very reactive and needs to lose 1 electron to obtain a full outer energy shell; Barium (Group 2) is an alkali earth metal and needs to lose 2 electrons to achieve stability; Astatine (Group 7) is a halogen, very reactive and needs to gain 1 electron to obtain a full outer energy shell; and Xenon (Group 8) is a noble gas and thus stable due to its full outer energy shell. This is how scientists are able to say what sort of properties the atoms in the last period have. Almost all of the elements in this period do not occur naturally on earth and are made in laboratories. These atoms do not exist for very long (they are very unstable and break apart easily) and so measuring their properties is difficult.

Exercise: elements in the periodic table

Refer to the elements listed below:

  • Lithium ( Li )
  • Chlorine ( Cl )
  • Magnesium ( Mg )
  • Neon ( Ne )
  • Oxygen ( O )
  • Calcium ( Ca )
  • Carbon ( C )
Which of the elements listed above:
  1. belongs to Group 1
  2. is a halogen
  3. is a noble gas
  4. is an alkali metal
  5. has an atomic number of 12
  6. has 4 neutrons in the nucleus of its atoms
  7. contains electrons in the 4th energy level
  8. has only one valence electron
  9. has all its energy orbitals full
  10. will have chemical properties that are most similar
  11. will form positive ions

Ionisation energy and the periodic table

Ions

In the previous section, we focused our attention on the electron configuration of neutral atoms. In a neutral atom, the number of protons is the same as the number of electrons. But what happens if an atom gains or loses electrons? Does it mean that the atom will still be part of the same element?

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
Yash Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
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