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2H 2 O 2  (hydrogen peroxide)   2H 2 O (water) + O 2  (oxygen)

Even though all of the reactants and products of this reaction are molecules (each atom remains bonded to at least one other atom), in this reaction only hydrogen peroxide and water are representatives of compounds : they contain atoms of more than one type of element. Molecular oxygen, on the other hand, as shown in [link] ,consists of two doubly bonded oxygen atoms and is not classified as a compound but as a mononuclear molecule.

Two oxygen atoms are shown side-by-side. Each has six valence electrons, two that are paired and two that are unpaired. An arrow indicates that a reaction takes place. After the reaction, the four unpaired electrons join to form a double bond. This double bond can also be depicted by an equal sign between two Os.
The oxygen atoms in an O 2 molecule are joined by a double bond.

Some chemical reactions, such as the one shown above, can proceed in one direction until the reactants are all used up. The equations that describe these reactions contain a unidirectional arrow and are irreversible . Reversible reactions are those that can go in either direction. In reversible reactions, reactants are turned into products, but when the concentration of product goes beyond a certain threshold (characteristic of the particular reaction), some of these products will be converted back into reactants; at this point, the designations of products and reactants are reversed. This back and forth continues until a certain relative balance between reactants and products occurs—a state called equilibrium    . These situations of reversible reactions are often denoted by a chemical equation with a double headed arrow pointing towards both the reactants and products.

For example, in human blood, excess hydrogen ions (H + ) bind to bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 - ) forming an equilibrium state with carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ). If carbonic acid were added to this system, some of it would be converted to bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.

HCO 3 + H + H 2 CO 3

In biological reactions, however, equilibrium is rarely obtained because the concentrations of the reactants or products or both are constantly changing, often with a product of one reaction being a reactant for another. To return to the example of excess hydrogen ions in the blood, the formation of carbonic acid will be the major direction of the reaction. However, the carbonic acid can also leave the body as carbon dioxide gas (via exhalation) instead of being converted back to bicarbonate ion, thus driving the reaction to the right by the chemical law known as law of mass action    . These reactions are important for maintaining the homeostasis of our blood.

HCO 3  + H +    H 2 CO 3    CO 2  + H 2 O

Ions and ionic bonds

Some atoms are more stable when they gain or lose an electron (or possibly two) and form ions. This fills their outermost electron shell and makes them energetically more stable. Because the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons, each ion has a net charge. Cations are positive ions that are formed by losing electrons. Negative ions are formed by gaining electrons and are called anions. Anions are designated by their elemental name being altered to end in “-ide”: the anion of chlorine is called chloride, and the anion of sulfur is called sulfide, for example.

This movement of electrons from one element to another is referred to as electron transfer    . As [link] illustrates, sodium (Na) only has one electron in its outer electron shell. It takes less energy for sodium to donate that one electron than it does to accept seven more electrons to fill the outer shell. If sodium loses an electron, it now has 11 protons, 11 neutrons, and only 10 electrons, leaving it with an overall charge of +1. It is now referred to as a sodium ion. Chlorine (Cl) in its lowest energy state (called the ground state) has seven electrons in its outer shell. Again, it is more energy-efficient for chlorine to gain one electron than to lose seven. Therefore, it tends to gain an electron to create an ion with 17 protons, 17 neutrons, and 18 electrons, giving it a net negative (–1) charge. It is now referred to as a chloride ion. In this example, sodium will donate its one electron to empty its shell, and chlorine will accept that electron to fill its shell. Both ions now satisfy the octet rule and have complete outermost shells. Because the number of electrons is no longer equal to the number of protons, each is now an ion and has a +1 (sodium cation) or –1 (chloride anion) charge. Note that these transactions can normally only take place simultaneously: in order for a sodium atom to lose an electron, it must be in the presence of a suitable recipient like a chlorine atom.

Questions & Answers

big bang theory was discovered by
Sweety Reply
Georges Lemaître
Mr
the meaning of nucleus
Spring Reply
nucleus Is also known as the cell's headquarters
Feranmi
what is pathology?
Azi Reply
is the study of diseases, it's cause and development of a disease
Boadi
State the law of segregation
Theolla Reply
what is a cell
Bunmi Reply
A cell is a basic structural unit of an organism
Addo
what are molecules?
Veronica
molecule:a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction.
Black
comapare and contrast food chain
Chengo Reply
what are the classes of biology
Oluebube Reply
Microbiology Biochemistry Botany Zoology Horticulture
Odion
what is translocation
James Reply
what is hominids
Dauba Reply
what is genetics
Musa Reply
what is meiosis?
Musa
genetics is the the study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.
Black
meiosis :a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Black
list three vertebrate animal and three invertebrate animal
Katie Reply
lizard, goat, frog ,earthworm, housefly, tapeworm
idoko
what is meant by radial symmetry?
Boadi
what is meaning of polysaccharide
mark Reply
this is the combination of two or more monosacharide
bernard
long chain of monosacchrides joined together by glycosidic bonds
Pepper
water as a function in cell for inorganic substances
chisom Reply
hi john....wat about for mineral salts, its function in a cell and structure
chisom
hi chisom which topic is this
Ezeh
what is sepsis
Dauba
this biology is for which grade?
Janet Reply
A1
Boadi
state any one specialized animal cell and it's function
Pascal Reply
sperm cell: Fertilization
Tshering

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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