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This chapter discusses the role that virtual research environments play in bringing together researchers and resources needed in virtual environments underpinned by e-Infrastructures.

Introduction

e-Research is, by definition, a collaborative activity that combines the abilities of distributed groups of researchers in order to achieve research goals that individual researchers or local groups could not hope to accomplish. Very often, e-Research is also multidisciplinary, spanning not only geographical and organisational boundaries but also disciplinary ones. There is hardly any kind of research that does not make use of electronic resources of one kind or other and in some disciplines ICTs play such a central role that without them, the advancement of research would not be possible.

The notion of a virtual research environment has gained prominence in the e‑Research community (Fraser 2005, Borda et al . 2006). For all practical puposes, the term is synonymous with other concepts such as collaboratories, cyberenvironments or science gateways that are used in the US and elsewhere ( cf. Olson, Zimmerman and Bos 2008, Wilkins-Diehr 2007). The aim of a VRE is to provide an integrated environment that supports the work of a community of collaborating researchers. That is, a VRE brings together previously separate tools needed for conducting the research and for collaboration , support for which is increasingly recognised as an integral aspect of researchers’ work rather than something that can be added on as an afterthought.

Providing rich functionality

Behind the scenes, a VRE makes use of a set of services proving secure access to various kinds of resources such as datasets, large-scale storage facilities and computational facilities for execution of scientific codes. The resources used are distributed, they are provided by different organisations and under different policies governing their usage. Therefore, the infrastructure needs to support their management by providing, for example, appropriate authentication and authorisation mechanisms to ensure that only authorised individuals access files and that computational resources are accessed with the correct credentials. During the execution of a scientific application, intermediate data and runtime information is created that may be retained to provide a provenance record and simulation outputs are stored in a storage system. For example, researchers might want to:

  • authenticate using an authentication service,
  • communicate and collaborate with colleagues,
  • transfer data,
  • configure a resource,
  • invoke a computation,
  • re-use data and give credit to the original producer,
  • archive output data and runtime data,
  • publish outputs, both informally through blogs or wikis and formally through conference or journal papers,
  • discover what resources are available,
  • monitor the state of a resource or process,
  • maintain awareness of who is currently doing what,
  • find out where particular data has come from and how it was processed ( provenance ),
  • find out who has access to a resource and what they can do with it ( authentication and authorisation ).

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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