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Cimicids belong to a hematophagous taxon that feeds primarily on the blood of humans, birds and bats. Their best known member is the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, which parasitizes humans. In bed bugs and other cimicids, a bizarre form of mating behavior called traumatic insemination takes place in which males pierce females through the abdominal region and inseminate directly into the body cavity. This mating practice is thought to have evolved due to differences in the evolutionary interests of the two sexes, in which fitness does not increase with the number of matings in females, but does increase in males. A variety of hypotheses have arisen to explain the evolution of traumatic insemination, including bypassing the mating plug and overcoming female resistance during mating, which would be reproductively advantageous to males. Regardless of its evolutionary origin, traumatic insemination has been shown to propel male and female coevolution. In the case of the bed bug, females have evolved a spermalege, an organ that serves as a counter-adaptation to the damage caused by the males’ intromittent organs that deliver sperm during copulation. These observations have led scientists to regard cimicids, C. lectularius in particular, as ideal model systems for examining the causes and consequences of sexual selection.

Author: Christine Sun

Introduction

In the animal kingdom, mating interactions are frequently marked by conflict (Johnston&Keller 2000). In sexually reproducing organisms, both the male and the female have conflicting strategies in optimizing reproductive fitness (Morrow et al. 2003). Although male fitness increases with the number of matings, female fitness is not increased and is often lowered. At the same time, however, the two sexes must meet somewhere in the middle to be able to successfully produce offspring. As a result, sexual conflict often leads to an evolutionary arms race between males and females (Rice&Holland 1997; Morrow et al. 2003; Lessells 2006). As Dawkins and Krebs phrased it, “as swords get sharper, so shields get thicker, so swords get sharper still”(Dawkins&Krebs 1979). One organism that displays sexual conflict is the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius .

The bed bug, which belongs to the Cimicidae family, has been known to parasitize humans for more than four million years (Reinhardt&Siva-Jothy 2007). While the organism itself is relatively common, the bed bug’s particular mating behavior is rarely found in other species. Although bed bugs have fully functional reproductive tracts, they reproduce solely by traumatic insemination (Usinger 1966 as cited by Reinhardt&Siva-Jothy 2007).

During traumatic insemination, the male pierces the female’s abdomen with his knifelike intromittent organ and injects his sperm through the wound into her hemocoel , the cavity that contains the hemolymph . The sperm travels throughout the female’s hemolymph and eventually reaches the ovaries, resulting in fertilization (Carayon 1966 as cited by Reinhardt&Siva-Jothy 2007).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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