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The biosphere is the region of the earth that encompasses all living organisms: plants, animals and bacteria......

The biosphere

Introduction

The biosphere is the region of the earth that encompasses all living organisms: plants, animals and bacteria. It is a feature that distinguishes the earth from the other planets in the solar system. "Bio" means life, and the term biosphere was first coined by a Russian scientist (Vladimir Vernadsky) in the 1920s. Another term sometimes used is ecosphere ("eco" meaning home). The biosphere includes the outer region of the earth (the lithosphere ) and the lower region of the atmosphere (the troposphere ). It also includes the hydrosphere , the region of lakes, oceans, streams, ice and clouds comprising the earth's water resources. Traditionally, the biosphere is considered to extend from the bottom of the oceans to the highest mountaintops, a layer with an average thickness of about 20 kilometers. Scientists now know that some forms of microbes live at great depths, sometimes several thousand meters into the earth's crust.

Nonetheless, the biosphere is a very tiny region on the scale of the whole earth, analogous to the thickness of the skin on an apple. The bulk of living organisms actually live within a smaller fraction of the biosphere, from about 500 meters below the ocean's surface to about 6 kilometers above sea level.

Dynamic interactions occur between the biotic region (biosphere) and the abiotic regions (atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere) of the earth. Energy, water, gases and nutrients are exchanged between the regions on various spatial and time scales. Such exchanges depend upon, and can be altered by, the environments of the regions. For example, the chemical processes of early life on earth (e.g. photosynthesis, respiration, carbonate formation) transformed the reducing ancient atmosphere into the oxidizing (free oxygen) environment of today. The interactive processes between the biosphere and the abiotic regions work to maintain a kind of planetary equilibrium. These processes, as well as those that might disrupt this equilibrium, involve a range of scientific and socioeconomic issues.

The study of the relationships of living organisms with one another and with their environment is the science known as ecology . The word ecology comes from the Greek words oikos and logos, and literally means "study of the home." The ecology of the earth can be studied at various levels: an individual (organism), a population , a community , an ecosystem , a biome or the entire biosphere . The variety of living organisms that inhabit an environment is a measure of its biodiversity .

Organisms

Life evolved after oceans formed, as the ocean environment provided the necessary nutrients and support medium for the initial simple organisms. It also protected them from the harsh atmospheric UV radiation. As organisms became more complex they eventually became capable of living on land. However, this could not occur until the atmosphere became oxidizing and a protective ozone layer formed which blocked the harmful UV radiation. Over roughly the last four billion years, organisms have diversified and adapted to all kinds of environments, from the icy regions near the poles to the warm tropics near the equator, and from deep in the rocky crust of the earth to the upper reaches of the troposphere.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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