




Introduction
This module is a companion to the module, “SocioTechnical Systems in Professional DecisionMaking” (m14025). It also responds to recent work in an area dubbed, Science and Technology Studies. (Johnson and Wetmore’s anthology,
Technology and Society: Building Our Sociotechnical Future , provides a good sampling of recent articles in this area.) You will be provided with three lenses through which to view technologies. Each lens presents a different conception of the relation of technology to society; no single lens is completely true or completely false. Rather, each is distinguished by the way in which it selects certain elements from experience as areas for concentration and focus. Thus, lenses are tools that will prove useful as you navigate through the complexity of different sociotechnical systems. Working with these lenses will give you a multilayered and multidimensional view of the different ecologies (social, technical, and natural) that surround you and within which you work.
What you need to know.
Lenses are not ideologies
 An ideology presents a particular world view as the truth. Thomas Kuhn characterized ideologies or world views as “paradigms” in his book,
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . For Kuhn, paradigms form selfcontained accountings of the world and are incommensurable with one other. During certain “normal” periods, these paradigms can construct positive and useful lines of inquiry and discovery.
 But incommensurable paradigms also battle with one another during “revolutionary” periods for dominance. Kuhn’s highly controversial claim is that disputes between rival, paradigms cannot be resolved by recourse to rational means. Instead, they become power struggles, not unlike the power struggles in the political realm between competing classes and their supporting ideologies.
 Treating different views on the relation between technology and society as lenses rather than incommensurable ideologies or paradigms, allows us to explore and compare the different lines of inquiry each opens. Lenses are tools that support inquire, drive discovery, and refashion the surrounding world. Each lens provides a partial view of experience. Viewing experience through multiple lenses helps us to build a richer, multilevel and multiperspective for trouble shooting and problemsolving.
 In this module, you will view the four cases presented above through the lenses of technological determinism, social construction, and technological politics. These different lenses should help you to understand and control technology more effectively and safely.
Lens one: technological determinism
 Marx provides the classical statement of technological determinism: “In acquiring new productive forces men change their mode of production; and in changing their mode of production, in changing the way of earning their living, they change all their social relations. The handmill gives you society with the feudal lord; the steammill society with the industrial capitalist.”
Quoted by Langdon Winner in Autonomous Technology, 79
 Technological determinism thus claims that certain technological devices (electricity, the automobile, the computer) recreate our material conditions in such a way that they determine the nature of our social consciousness and restructure our social and economic relations to one another.
 The following quote shows that, for Heilbroner, technological determinism comes from a unique convergence of events during modern times. Science has advanced to a particular point in harmony with certain machineoriented skills.
 “Technological Determinism is thus peculiarly a problem of a certain historical epoch—specifically that of high capitalism and low socialism—in which the forces of technical change have been unleashed but when the agencies for the control or guidance of technology are still rudimentary.” (Johnson and Wetmore, 104)
 Thus, a knowledge base (formed out of valueneutral, mechanistic science) has been combined with a platform of technical knowhow (such as the ability to fashion metal with precision into complex machines) to give rise to certain economic relations (capitalist to worker). But, because our political system was developed in preindustrial times, it is not able to control the current technological revolution. The technology controls us much to our detriment. To take back control, we must radically reconstitute both our technology and our social and economic relations.
Questions & Answers
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the
fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction.
2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
1. x + 6 2
 = _
x + 9 + 6 3
x + 6 3
 x  (cross multiply)
x + 15 2
3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15)
3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (2x from both)
x + 18 = 30 (18 from both)
x = 12
Test:
12 + 6 18 2
 =  = 
12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2.
(x) + (x + 2) = 60
2x + 2 = 60
2x = 58
x = 29
29, 30, & 31
Pawel
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1
x + 3x + 1 = 113
4x = 112, x = 28
Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
how do I set up the problem?
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
hello, I am happy to help!
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
Abdullahi
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
Want to review on complex number
1.What are complex number
2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
yes i wantt to review
Mark
use the y intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
how do we prove the quadratic formular
please help me prove quadratic formula
Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
thank you
help me with how to prove the quadratic equation
Seidu
may God blessed u for that.
Please I want u to help me in sets.
Opoku
x2y+3z=3
2xy+z=7
x+3yz=6
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation.
Point For:
(6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,411)
Equation Form:
x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11
y=41/11
z=−4/11
x=61/11
y=41/11
z=4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^2
what is the coefficient of 4×
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to 1
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)1/7 (x1)=
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Source:
OpenStax, Civis project  uprm. OpenStax CNX. Nov 20, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11359/1.4
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