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This module is a companion to the module, “Socio-Technical Systems in Professional Decision-Making” (m14025). It also responds to recent work in an area dubbed, Science and Technology Studies. (Johnson and Wetmore’s anthology, Technology and Society: Building Our Sociotechnical Future , provides a good sampling of recent articles in this area.) You will be provided with three lenses through which to view technologies. Each lens presents a different conception of the relation of technology to society; no single lens is completely true or completely false. Rather, each is distinguished by the way in which it selects certain elements from experience as areas for concentration and focus. Thus, lenses are tools that will prove useful as you navigate through the complexity of different socio-technical systems. Working with these lenses will give you a multi-layered and multi-dimensional view of the different ecologies (social, technical, and natural) that surround you and within which you work.

What you need to know.

Lenses are not ideologies

  • An ideology presents a particular world view as the truth. Thomas Kuhn characterized ideologies or world views as “paradigms” in his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . For Kuhn, paradigms form self-contained accountings of the world and are incommensurable with one other. During certain “normal” periods, these paradigms can construct positive and useful lines of inquiry and discovery.
  • But incommensurable paradigms also battle with one another during “revolutionary” periods for dominance. Kuhn’s highly controversial claim is that disputes between rival, paradigms cannot be resolved by recourse to rational means. Instead, they become power struggles, not unlike the power struggles in the political realm between competing classes and their supporting ideologies.
  • Treating different views on the relation between technology and society as lenses rather than incommensurable ideologies or paradigms, allows us to explore and compare the different lines of inquiry each opens. Lenses are tools that support inquire, drive discovery, and refashion the surrounding world. Each lens provides a partial view of experience. Viewing experience through multiple lenses helps us to build a richer, multi-level and multi-perspective for trouble shooting and problem-solving.
  • In this module, you will view the four cases presented above through the lenses of technological determinism, social construction, and technological politics. These different lenses should help you to understand and control technology more effectively and safely.

Lens one: technological determinism

  • Marx provides the classical statement of technological determinism: “In acquiring new productive forces men change their mode of production; and in changing their mode of production, in changing the way of earning their living, they change all their social relations. The hand-mill gives you society with the feudal lord; the steam-mill society with the industrial capitalist.” Quoted by Langdon Winner in Autonomous Technology, 79
  • Technological determinism thus claims that certain technological devices (electricity, the automobile, the computer) recreate our material conditions in such a way that they determine the nature of our social consciousness and restructure our social and economic relations to one another.
  • The following quote shows that, for Heilbroner, technological determinism comes from a unique convergence of events during modern times. Science has advanced to a particular point in harmony with certain machine-oriented skills.
  • “Technological Determinism is thus peculiarly a problem of a certain historical epoch—specifically that of high capitalism and low socialism—in which the forces of technical change have been unleashed but when the agencies for the control or guidance of technology are still rudimentary.” (Johnson and Wetmore, 104)
  • Thus, a knowledge base (formed out of value-neutral, mechanistic science) has been combined with a platform of technical know-how (such as the ability to fashion metal with precision into complex machines) to give rise to certain economic relations (capitalist to worker). But, because our political system was developed in pre-industrial times, it is not able to control the current technological revolution. The technology controls us much to our detriment. To take back control, we must radically reconstitute both our technology and our social and economic relations.

Questions & Answers

explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
⅗ ⅔½
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
find the subring of gaussian integers?
hello, I am happy to help!
Shirley Reply
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
hi mam
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
yes i wantt to review
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
please help me prove quadratic formula
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
thank you help me with how to prove the quadratic equation
may God blessed u for that. Please I want u to help me in sets.
what is math number
Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Civis project - uprm. OpenStax CNX. Nov 20, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11359/1.4
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