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Fish schools are one of the best examples of aggregation in animals. Schools are groups of fish that act as a single unit, and are characterized by a streamlined structure and uniform behavior for the purposes of avoiding predators and finding food. Individuals join schools for selfish reasons; therefore, in order for schooling to improve fitness, the schools must offer benefits greater than the costs of increased visibility to predators, increased competition, and energetic instability. These costs are balanced by the benefits of schooling behavior in the presence of predators, altering patterns according to food availability, and engaging in behaviors such as sexual or mixed schooling. Individuals also alter their behavior by competing for the safest spots within the school, jostling to be the first to eat, and leaving the school if does not benefit them as an individual. Study of schools also focuses upon the physical and sensory mechanisms that allow the school to act and respond as a unit, despite being comprised of, sometimes, hundreds or thousands of individuals. This too is evolutionarily relevant as the density, volume, and structure represent the results of selective pressure while maintaining the conflict between those on the outside of the school or unrelated individuals and the rest of the school. As a whole, schools provide insight into aggregate behavior as they can be manipulated, observed and modeled to provide answers.

Author: Aparna Bhaduri

Trinidadian Guppies
The Trinidadian guppy is one of the most studied schooling fish. Its prevalence and ease in breeding both accommodate its study.

Introduction

Humans have been interested in schooling behavior in fish for centuries, often for very practical reasons. Before scientists marveled at schools as perfect examples of aggregation and products of fine tuned evolutionary action, schooling was important to fisherman. Understanding how and when these schools would arise, how they would travel, and where they could be found were important in many coastal cities and civilizations. Aristotle himself once commented that the fish school ought to be what a society strives to be: as such, the human interest in schooling fish is one of the oldest forms of animal behavior study, one that has taken on an increasingly scientific perspective.

As evolutionary theory predicts, each individual within the school competes for resources, survival, and reproductive potential (Hamilton 1970). A school is a group of fish ranging from just a few fish to thousands of fish that acts like a single entity, where the behaviors that it engages in such as swimming, avoiding predation , and foraging benefits each member of the group distinctly (Edelstein-Keshet 1999). Therefore, questions about schooling behavior center on the evolutionary reasons for schools, potential costs and how they are overcome, as well as specific examinations of the school dynamic .

The methods of studying fish are quite diverse: observation , experimentation , comparison , and computer modeling are some of the most common ways fish schools are studied. The schooling fish that are studied range from the easily manipulated Trinidadian guppy, to the common herring, to parrotfish that are found near corals ( [link] ). Hundreds of species of fish school, and many of them have been studied.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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