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This module was developed as part of the Rice University course CHEM-496: Chemistry of Electronic Materials . This module was prepared with the assistance of Wei Zhao.


Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process for depositing solid elements and compounds by reactions of gas-phase molecular precursors. Deposition of a majority of the solid elements and a large and ever-growing number of compounds is possible by CVD.

Most metallization for microelectronics today is performed by the physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes of evaporation and sputtering, which are often conceptually and experimentally more straightforward than CVD. However, the increasing importance of CVD is due to a large degree to the advantages that it holds over physical vapor deposition. Foremost among these are the advantages of conformal coverage and selectivity. Sputtering and evaporation are by their nature line-of-sight deposition processes in which the substrate to be coated must be placed directly in front of the PVD source. In contrast, CVD allows any substrate to be coated that is in a region of sufficient precursor partial pressure. This allows the uniform coating of several substrate wafers at once, of both sides of a substrate wafer, or of a substrate of large size and/or complex shape. The PVD techniques clearly will also deposit metal on any surface that is in line of sight. On the other hand, it is possible to deposit selectively on some substrate materials in the presence of others using CVD, because the deposition is controlled by the surface chemistry of the precursor/substrate pair. Thus, it may be possible, for example, to synthesize a CVD precursor that under certain conditions will deposit on metals but not on an insulating material such as SiO 2 , and to exploit this selectivity, for example, in the fabrication of a very large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit. It should also be pointed out that, unlike some PVD applications, CVD does not cause radiation damage of the substrate.

Since the 1960s, there has been considerable interest in the application of metal CVD for thin-film deposition for metallization of integrated circuits. Research on the thermal CVD of copper is motivated by the fact that copper has physical properties that may make it superior to either tungsten or aluminum in certain microelectronics applications. The resistivity of copper (1.67 mW.cm) is much lower than that of tungsten (5.6 mW.cm) and significantly lower than that of aluminum (2.7 mW.cm). This immediately suggests that copper could be a superior material for making metal interconnects, especially in devices where relatively long interconnects are required. The electromigration resistance of copper is higher than that of aluminum by four orders of magnitude. Copper has increased resistance to stress-induced voidage due to its higher melting point versus aluminum. There are also reported advantages for copper related device performance such as greater speed and reduced cross talk and smaller RC time constants. On the whole, the combination of superior resistivity and intermediate reliability properties makes copper a promising material for many applications, provide that suitable CVD processes can be devised.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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