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The individual molecules of different compounds have characteristic properties, such as mass, structure, geometry, bond energies, bond lengths, bond angles, polarity, diamagnetism, or paramagnetism. We have not yet considered the properties of mass quantities of matter, such as density, phase (solid, liquid or gas) at room temperature, boiling and melting points, reactivity, and so forth. These are properties which are not exhibited by individual molecules. It makes no sense to ask what the boiling point of one molecule is, nor does an individual molecule exist as a gas, solid, or liquid. However, we do expect that these material or bulk properties are related to the properties of the individual molecules. Our ultimate goal is to relate the properties of the atoms and molecules to the properties of the materials which they comprise. This is where our work on the properties of individual atoms and molecules begins to pay big dividends in our understanding of matter.

This goal is, in general, very difficult to achieve both conceptually and quantitatively, and for many substances, relating the molecular properties to bulk properties is an active area of research. But there are many substances and properties for which we can make conceptual progress, and in some cases, we can even develop quantitative relationships. In the next Concept Development Study, we will study the relationship between the properties of gases and the properties of the individual particles which make up gases. In this Concept Development Study, we lay the groundwork for that study by analyzing the physical properties of gases, including pressure, density, and temperature.


We assume as our starting point the Atomic Molecular Theory, which states that all matter is composed of discrete particles. The elements consist of identical atoms, and compounds consist of identical molecules, which are particles containing small whole number ratios of atoms. We also assume that we have determined a complete set of relative atomic weights, allowing us to determine the molecular formula for any compound.

Of particular use will be Avogadro’s Law, which states that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of gas particles, regardless of the type of gas particles, provided that the volumes are taken at equal pressure and temperature. You may recall that Avogadro based this statement on the Law of Combining Volumes.

Observation 1: pressure-volume measurements on gases

It is an everyday observation that air has a "spring" to it: if you squeeze a balloon, the balloon rebounds to its original shape. As you pump air into a bicycle tire, the air pushes back against the piston of the pump. Furthermore, this resistance of the air against the piston clearly increases as the piston is pushed farther in. The “spring” of the air is measured as a pressure , where the pressure P is defined:

P = F/A

F is the force exerted by the air on the surface of the piston head, and A is the surface area of the piston head.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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