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Notes to teachers and students:

Phasors! For those who understand them, they are of incomparable value for the study of elementary and advanced topics. For those who misunderstand them, they are a constant source of confusion and are of no apparent use. So, let's understand them.

The conceptual leap from the complex number e j θ to the phasor e j ( ω t + θ ) comes in "Phasor Representation of Signals" . Take as long as necessary to understand every geometrical and algebraic nuance. Write the MATLAB program in "Exercise 6" to fix the key ideas once and for all. Then use phasors to study beating between tones, multiphase power, and Lissajous figures in "Beating between Tones" through "Lissajous Figures" . We usually conduct a classroom demonstration of beating between tones usingtwo phase-locked sources, an oscilloscope, and a speaker. We also demonstrate Lissajous figures with this hardware.

"Sinusoidal Steady State and the Series RLC Circuit" and Light Scattering by a Slit" on sinusoidal steady state and light scattering are too demanding for freshmen but are right on target for sophomores. Thesesections may be covered in a sophomore course (or a supplement to a sophomore course) or skipped in a freshman course without consequence.

In the numerical experiment in "Numerical Experiment (Interference Patterns)" , students compute and plot interference patterns for two sinusoids that are out of phase.

Introduction

In engineering and applied science, three test signals form the basis for our study of electrical and mechanical systems. The impulse is an idealized signal that models very short excitations (like current pulses, hammer blows, pile drives, and light flashes). The step is an idealized signal that models excitations that are switched on and stay on (like current in a relay that closes or a transistor that switches). The sinusoid is an idealized signal that models excitations that oscillate with a regular frequency (like AC power, AM radio, pure musical tones, and harmonic vibrations). All three signals are used in the laboratory to design and analyze electrical and mechanical circuits, control systems, radio antennas, and the like. The sinusoidal signal is particularly important because it may be used to determine the frequency selectivity of a circuit (like a superheterodyne radio receiver) to excitations of different frequencies. For this reason, every manufacturer of electronics test equipment builds sinusoidal oscillators that may be swept through many octaves of Orequency. (Hewlett-Packard was started in 1940 with the famous HP audio oscillator.)

In this chapter we use what we have learned about complex numbers and the function e j θ to develop a phasor calculus for representing and ma- nipulating sinusoids. This calculus operates very much like the calculus wedeveloped in "Complex Numbers" and "The Functions e x and e " for manipulating complex numbers. We ap- ply our calculus to the study of beating phenomena, multiphase power, series RLC circuits, and light scattering by a slit.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A first course in electrical and computer engineering. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10685/1.2
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