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Introduction

Magnetism is a force that certain kinds of objects, which are called `magnetic' objects, can exert on each other without physically touching. A magnetic object is surrounded by a magnetic `field' that gets weaker as one moves further away from the object. A second object can feel a magnetic force from the first object because it feels the magnetic field of the first object.

Humans have known about magnetism for many thousands of years. For example, lodestone is a magnetised form of the iron oxide mineral magnetite . It has the property of attracting iron objects. It is referred to in old European and Asian historicalrecords; from around 800 BCE in Europe and around 2 600 BCE in Asia.

Interesting fact

The root of the English word magnet is from the Greek word magnes , probably from Magnesia in Asia Minor, once an important source of lodestone.

Magnetic fields

A magnetic field is a region in space where a magnet or object made of magnetic material will experience a non-contact force.

Electrons inside any object have magnetic fields associated with them. In most materials these fields point in alldirections, so the net magnetic field is zero. For example, in the plastic ball below, the directions of the magnetic fields of the electrons (shown by the arrows) are pointingin different directions and cancel each other out. Therefore the plastic ball is not magnetic and has no magnetic field.

In some materials (e.g. iron), called ferromagnetic materials, there are regions called domains , where the electrons' magnetic fields line up with each other. All the atoms in each domain are grouped together so that the magnetic fields from their electrons point the same way. The picture shows a piece of an iron needle zoomed in to show the domains with the electric fields lined up inside them.

In permanent magnets, many domains are lined up, resulting in a net magnetic field . Objects made from ferromagnetic materials can be magnetised, for example by rubbing a magnetalong the object in one direction. This causes the magnetic fields of most, or all, of the domains to line up in one direction. As a result the object as a whole will have a net magnetic field. It is magnetic . Once a ferromagnetic object has been magnetised, it can stay magnetic without another magnet being nearby (i.e. without being in another magnetic field). In the picture below, the needle has been magnetised because the magnetic fields in all the domains are pointing in the same direction.

Investigation : ferromagnetic materials and magnetisation

  1. Find 2 paper clips. Put the paper clips close together and observe what happens.
    1. What happens to the paper clips?
    2. Are the paper clips magnetic?
  2. Now take a permanent bar magnet and rub it once along 1 of the paper clips. Remove the magnet and put the paper clip which was touched by the magnet close to the other paper clip and observe what happens. Does the untouched paper clip feel a force on it? If so, is the force attractive or repulsive?
  3. Rub the same paper clip a few more times with the bar magnet, in the same direction as before. Put the paper clip close to the other one and observe what happens.
    1. Is there any difference to what happened in step 2?
    2. If there is a difference, what is the reason for it?
    3. Is the paper clip which was rubbed repeatedly by the magnet now magnetised?
    4. What is the difference between the two paper clips at the level of their atoms and electrons?
  4. Now, find a metal knitting needle, or a metal ruler, or other metal object. Rub the bar magnet along the knitting needle a few times in the same direction. Now put the knitting needle close to the paper clips and observe what happens.
    1. Does the knitting needle attract the paper clips?
    2. What does this tell you about the material of the knitting needle? Is it ferromagnetic?
  5. Repeat this experiment with objects made from other materials. Which materials appear to be ferromagnetic and which are not? Put your answers in a table.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Harold walks to school by walking 600 m Northeast and then 500 m N 40∘ W. Determine his resultant displacement by using accurate scale drawings.
Lethabo Reply
Draw a frame of reference with house A as the origin and write down the positions of houses B, C, D and E.
jason Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physics - grade 10 [caps 2011]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 14, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11298/1.3
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