# Filtering periodic signals

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This development of these labs was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DUE-0511635. Any opinions, conclusions orrecommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

## Introduction

In this lab, we will look at the effect of filtering signals using a frequency domain implementation of an LTI system, i.e., multiplying the Fourier transform of the input signal with the frequency response of the system. In particular, we will filter sound signals, and investigate both low-pass and high-pass filters. Recall that a low-pass filter filters out high frequencies, allowing only the low frequencies to pass through. A high-pass filter does the opposite.

## Matlab commands and resources

• `help<command>` , online help for a command.
• `fft` , Fast Fourier Transform.
• `ifft` , Inverse Fourier Transform.
• `sound` , plays sound unscaled (clips input to [-1,1]).
• `soundsc` , plays sound scaled (scales input to [-1,1]).
• `wavread` , reads in WAV file. The sampling rate of the WAV file can also be retrieved, for example, `[x, Fs] = wavread('filename.wav')` , where `x` is the sound vector and `Fs` is the sampling rate.

All of the sounds for this lab can be downloaded from the Sound Resources page.

## Transforming signals to the frequency domain and back

When working in MATLAB, the continuous-time Fourier transform cannot be done by the computer exactly, but a digital approximation is done instead. The approximation uses the discrete Fourier transform (more on that in EE 341). There are a couple important differences between the discrete Fourier transforms on the computer and the continuous Fourier transforms you are working with in class: finite frequency range and discrete frequency samples. The frequency range is related to the sampling frequency of the signal. In the example below, where we find the Fourier transform of the "fall" signal, the sampling frequency is `Fs=8000` , so the frequency range is [-4000,4000] Hz (or 2*pi times that for w in radians). The frequency resolution depends on the length of the signal (which is also the length of the frequency representation).

The MATLAB command for finding the Fourier transform of a signal is `fft` (for Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)). In this class, we only need the default version. `>>load fall %load in the signal>>x = fall;>>X = fft(x);` The `fft` command in MATLAB returns an uncentered result. To view the frequency content in the same way as we are used to seeing it in class, you need to plot only the first half of the result (positive frequencies only) OR use the MATLAB command `fftshift` which toggles between centered and uncentered versions of the frequency domain. The code below will allow you to view the frequency content both ways. ```>>N = length(x);>>pfreq = [0:N/2]*Fs/N; % index of positive frequencies in fft>>Xpos=X(1:N/2+1); % subset of fft values at positive frequencies>>plot(pfreq,abs(Xpos)); % plot magnitude of fft at positive frequencies>>figure;>>freq = [-(N/2-1):N/2]*Fs/N; % index of positive AND negative freqs>>plot(freq,abs(fftshift(X))); % fftshift actually SWAPS halves of X here. See help. % Convince yourself of why it does this to match up with freq!``` Note that we are using `abs` in the plot to view the magnitude since the Fourier transform of the signal is complex valued. (Type `X(2)` to see this. Note that X(1) is the DC term, so this will be real valued.)

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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