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Introduction

Worldwide concern over the effects of “greenhouse” gases on climate change became increasingly evident in the late eighties and early nineties. International efforts to curb emissions of these gases culminated in the Kyoto Protocol Treaty negotiated in 1997 in the City of Kyoto, Japan. The Treaty initially applied only to industrialized countries, not emerging nations. Although several industrial nations declined to sign the Treaty, it came into effect in February 2005. Perhaps the most notable refusal to agree to the Protocol and Treaty was the United States. There the Senate delivered a near unanimous vote against, this accord, citing the lack of commitment of China, India, and other large emerging nations to reduce emissions.

Signatories to the Kyoto Treaty agreed to reduce the collective emissions of greenhouse gases of industrialized nations by 5.2% compared to 1990. It was expected at the time that this target would actually result in a 29% cut in emissions by the year 2010. The Treaty applied to overall emissions of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 20 ), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). However, in public discussions and in the press, the prime focus has been upon reducing emissions of CO 2 over time, even though the impact of the greenhouse gas methane, pound for pound, has more potent warming effects than CO 2 . However methane is far less abundant in the atmosphere than is CO 2 . Still, this molecule may be responsible for as much as one-quarter of global warming. It is to be noted that some atmospheric methane arises from natural sources, such as gas seeps or wetlands. Eli Kintisch, “Hunting a Climate Fugitive”, Science , Vol. 344(6191), June 27, 2014.

If CO 2 emissions only are considered, it is apparent that this source of greenhouse gas has climbed precipitously since 1950, from about 10 billion tons per year to about 35 billion tons in 2012, per year a 3½ fold increase (see Table 18-1). Emissions of CO 2 continued to climb after 1997, as well as after 2005, when the Treaty came into force.

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As indicated in Figure 17-1 , the Treaty has not been effective in reducing CO2 emissions.

The European Union moved early on after 2005 to curb global warming. In 2007, the EU agreed to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This was intended to set the stage for a very sharp reduction of 80% by 2050. The 2007 EU agreement resulted in little concrete progress, leading the EU nations to agree in 2014 among themselves (not by treaty) to take further measures intended to cut greenhouse gases emissions by 40% from levels obtained in 1990.

Shortly after the latest EU action, recognition of the inefficacy of the Kyoto Agreement led to a November 2014 groundbreaking agreement to reduce emissions by the two most important sources of CO 2 in the atmosphere: the United States and China. Together, these two nations accounted for 44% of global carbon emissions in 2013. This agreement calls for the U.S. to reduce emissions by 26% by 2025, and for China to begin to take steps to curb emissions by 2030, the first time China has agreed to any limits on emissions.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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