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Introduction

Worldwide concern over the effects of “greenhouse” gases on climate change became increasingly evident in the late eighties and early nineties. International efforts to curb emissions of these gases culminated in the Kyoto Protocol Treaty negotiated in 1997 in the City of Kyoto, Japan. The Treaty initially applied only to industrialized countries, not emerging nations. Although several industrial nations declined to sign the Treaty, it came into effect in February 2005. Perhaps the most notable refusal to agree to the Protocol and Treaty was the United States. There the Senate delivered a near unanimous vote against, this accord, citing the lack of commitment of China, India, and other large emerging nations to reduce emissions.

Signatories to the Kyoto Treaty agreed to reduce the collective emissions of greenhouse gases of industrialized nations by 5.2% compared to 1990. It was expected at the time that this target would actually result in a 29% cut in emissions by the year 2010. The Treaty applied to overall emissions of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 20 ), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). However, in public discussions and in the press, the prime focus has been upon reducing emissions of CO 2 over time, even though the impact of the greenhouse gas methane, pound for pound, has more potent warming effects than CO 2 . However methane is far less abundant in the atmosphere than is CO 2 . Still, this molecule may be responsible for as much as one-quarter of global warming. It is to be noted that some atmospheric methane arises from natural sources, such as gas seeps or wetlands. Eli Kintisch, “Hunting a Climate Fugitive”, Science , Vol. 344(6191), June 27, 2014.

If CO 2 emissions only are considered, it is apparent that this source of greenhouse gas has climbed precipitously since 1950, from about 10 billion tons per year to about 35 billion tons in 2012, per year a 3½ fold increase (see Table 18-1). Emissions of CO 2 continued to climb after 1997, as well as after 2005, when the Treaty came into force.

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As indicated in Figure 17-1 , the Treaty has not been effective in reducing CO2 emissions.

The European Union moved early on after 2005 to curb global warming. In 2007, the EU agreed to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. This was intended to set the stage for a very sharp reduction of 80% by 2050. The 2007 EU agreement resulted in little concrete progress, leading the EU nations to agree in 2014 among themselves (not by treaty) to take further measures intended to cut greenhouse gases emissions by 40% from levels obtained in 1990.

Shortly after the latest EU action, recognition of the inefficacy of the Kyoto Agreement led to a November 2014 groundbreaking agreement to reduce emissions by the two most important sources of CO 2 in the atmosphere: the United States and China. Together, these two nations accounted for 44% of global carbon emissions in 2013. This agreement calls for the U.S. to reduce emissions by 26% by 2025, and for China to begin to take steps to curb emissions by 2030, the first time China has agreed to any limits on emissions.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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