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Molar mass of cu and turning cu into au


  • To learn Faraday’s two laws of electrolysis
  • To relate an electric current to the passage of an amount of electric charge
  • To discuss electrolysis in molten salts and in aqueous solutions
  • To determine the molar mass of copper by electrodeposition from an aqueous solution
  • To copper into gold (please bring to lab with you a penny that is pre-1982)


You grade will be determined according to the following:

  • Pre-lab (10%)
  • Report Form (80%)
  • TA evaluation of lab procedure (10%)–including bringing a pre-1982 penny to lab

Before coming to lab…

  • Read and complete the pre-lab
  • Read the background information
  • Read and be familiar with the Lab Instructions
  • Find a pre-1982 penny and bring it with you to lab


Electrochemistry describes the interaction between electrical energy and chemical processes. Electricity continues to intrigue us, as it has since people first observed the sky shattered by bolts of lightning. Electrochemistry is of great practical value to contemporary living. Consider the number of batteries used for powering the many portable items of pleasure and need–everything from cassette recorders to hearing aids, from calculators to pacemakers. Pure metals are produced from natural ores, inorganic and organic compounds are synthesized, metal surfaces are plated with other metals or coated with paint to enhance their value and utility–all through electrochemistry.

Electricity is a moving stream of electrical charges. This flow, or electric current, can occur as electrons moving through a wire or as ions flowing through an aqueous solution. If the electrons lost and gained in a spontaneous reaction can flow through a wire on their pathway from the substance oxidized to the substance reduced, the energy of the reaction is released as electrical energy. Conversely, a non-spontaneous redox reaction can be driven forward by the introduction into the system of electrical energy from another source. Any device in which either process can occur is called an electrochemical cell.

There are two types of electrochemical cells. The first type generates electrical energy from a spontaneous redox reaction. These are called voltaic or galvanic cells, common household batteries are classic examples. An Italian physicist, Allesandro Volta in 1800 explained that electricity is generated by the connection of two dissimilar metals separated by any moist body (not necessarily organic). A simple voltaic cell, similar to that made by Volta, can be assembled using twelve pennies and twelve nickels (construct a column of alternating pennies and nickels with each coin separated by disk-size pieces of wet filter paper soaked in salt water).

In the second type of electrochemical cell, called an electrolytic cell, a non-spontaneous redox reaction is caused by the addition of electrical energy from a direct current source such as a generator or a storage battery. The process of generating a non-spontaneous redox reaction by means of electrical energy is called electrolysis.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Gen chem lab. OpenStax CNX. Oct 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10452/1.51
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