<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
This course is a short series of lectures on Statistical Bioinformatics. Topics covered are listed in the Table of Contents. The notes were preparedby Ewa Paszek, Lukasz Wita and Marek Kimmel. The development of this course has been supported by NSF 0203396 grant.

Introduction

A central goal of molecular biology is to understand the regulation of protein synthesis and its reactions to external and internal signals. All the cells in an organism carry the same genomic data, yet their protein makeup can be drastically different both temporally and spatially, due to regulation. Protein synthesis is regulated by many mechanisms at its different stages. These include mechanisms for controlling transcription initiation, RNA splicing, mRNA transport, translation initiation, post-translational modifications, and degradation of mRNA/protein. One of the main junctions at which regulation occurs is mRNA transcription. A major role in this machinery is played by proteins themselves that bind to regulatory regions along the DNA, greatly affecting the transcription of the genes they regulate.In recent years, technical breakthroughs in spotting hybridization probes and advances in genome sequencing efforts lead to development of DNA microarrays, which consist of many species of probes, either oligonucleotides or cDNA, that are immobilized in a predefined organization to a solid phase. By using DNA microarrays, researchers are now able to measure the abundance of thousands of mRNA targets simultaneously ( DeRisi et al.,1997 ; Lockhart et al., 1996; Wen et al., 1998). Unlike classical experiments, where the expression levels of only a few genes were reported, DNA microarray experiments can measure all the genes of an organism, providing a“genomic”viewpoint on gene expression. As a consequence, this technology facilitates new experimental approaches for understanding gene expression and regulation (Iyer et al., 1999; Spellman et al., 1998).

A central focus of genomic research concerns understanding the manner in which cells execute and control the enormous number of operations required for their function. Biological systems behave in an exceedingly parallel and extraordinarily integrated fashion. Feedback and damping are routine even for the most common activities. Thus, in this area of genomic biology, single gene perspectives are becoming increasingly limited for gaining insight into biological processes. Network applications are becoming increasingly important for making progress in our understanding of the manner in which genes and molecules collectively form a biological system and harnessing this understanding in educated intervention for correcting human diseases. Such approaches inevitably require computational and formal methods to process massive amounts of data, understand general principles governing the system under study, and make useful predictions about system behavior in the presence of known conditions. There is a rather wide spectrum of approaches for modeling gene regulatory networks, each with its own assumptions, data requirements, and goals. The group of the most popular models includes: Boolean, Probabilistic Boolean and Bayesian networks.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to bioinformatics. OpenStax CNX. Oct 09, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10240/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Introduction to bioinformatics' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask