<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Opposition and reposition

Opposition is the thumb movement that brings the tip of the thumb in contact with the tip of a finger. This movement is produced at the first carpometacarpal joint, which is a saddle joint formed between the trapezium carpal bone and the first metacarpal bone. Thumb opposition is produced by a combination of flexion and abduction of the thumb at this joint. Returning the thumb to its anatomical position next to the index finger is called reposition    (see [link] l ).

Movements of the Joints
Type of Joint Movement Example
Pivot Uniaxial joint; allows rotational movement Atlantoaxial joint (C1–C2 vertebrae articulation); proximal radioulnar joint
Hinge Uniaxial joint; allows flexion/extension movements Knee; elbow; ankle; interphalangeal joints of fingers and toes
Condyloid Biaxial joint; allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and circumduction movements Metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints of fingers; radiocarpal joint of wrist; metatarsophalangeal joints for toes
Saddle Biaxial joint; allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and circumduction movements First carpometacarpal joint of the thumb; sternoclavicular joint
Plane Multiaxial joint; allows inversion and eversion of foot, or flexion, extension, and lateral flexion of the vertebral column Intertarsal joints of foot; superior-inferior articular process articulations between vertebrae
Ball-and-socket Multiaxial joint; allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction, and medial/lateral rotation movements Shoulder and hip joints

Chapter review

The variety of movements provided by the different types of synovial joints allows for a large range of body motions and gives you tremendous mobility. These movements allow you to flex or extend your body or limbs, medially rotate and adduct your arms and flex your elbows to hold a heavy object against your chest, raise your arms above your head, rotate or shake your head, and bend to touch the toes (with or without bending your knees).

Each of the different structural types of synovial joints also allow for specific motions. The atlantoaxial pivot joint provides side-to-side rotation of the head, while the proximal radioulnar articulation allows for rotation of the radius during pronation and supination of the forearm. Hinge joints, such as at the knee and elbow, allow only for flexion and extension. Similarly, the hinge joint of the ankle only allows for dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the foot.

Condyloid and saddle joints are biaxial. These allow for flexion and extension, and abduction and adduction. The sequential combination of flexion, adduction, extension, and abduction produces circumduction. Multiaxial plane joints provide for only small motions, but these can add together over several adjacent joints to produce body movement, such as inversion and eversion of the foot. Similarly, plane joints allow for flexion, extension, and lateral flexion movements of the vertebral column. The multiaxial ball and socket joints allow for flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and circumduction. In addition, these also allow for medial (internal) and lateral (external) rotation. Ball-and-socket joints have the greatest range of motion of all synovial joints.

Watch this video to learn about anatomical motions. What motions involve increasing or decreasing the angle of the foot at the ankle?

Dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle decreases the angle of the ankle joint, while plantar flexion increases the angle of the ankle joint.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

Hi Be Home Be safe , how are things doing hope all is well
Natarajan Reply
3 longitudinal bands of smooth muscles found in large intestines
Jamia
what's is sutures
Nimeshka Reply
what would I like to know
Roy Reply
anything u can tell me
Roy
anatomy mins
Manish
when two or more bones meet.
Joseph
Joints
Anita
I am interested in learning but it is a little threatening corona virus covid 19
Samnang Reply
I don't know about Corona virus
Vicky
what would you like to know?
Mbasa
what is a peripheral protien
Ayesha Reply
actually its located in between the lipid layer, it does not specify if it's closer to the inside or the outside of the cell
Justin
It is protein found in lipid bilayer but found attached with Cytoplasm aspect
Jamal
what are the collection of blood.?
sunshine Reply
Effect of exercise on different body systems?
Rania Reply
what is ambroylogy
kashif Reply
embryology..is the biological studing of embryos
Ava
I know biological study but embryology mean any pic, example?
kashif
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/Comparative_embryology_of_the_vertebrates%3B_with_2057_drawings_and_photos._grouped_as_380_illus_%281953%29_%2820482505100%29.jpg
Ava
I like to learn about medical and more
Samnang
what is the function of the blood
Yolanda Reply
Transporting of oxygen,fighting against germs, forms clotting ,distribution of nutrients and minerals through out the body ,
Nimco
Transportation of gases such as oxygen and water blance and carrei metabolites to the exit organ and Acid base equilibrium and clotting blood and Immune
Jamal
What are Gross and microscopicAnatomy
Waiswa Reply
study of the internal structures of a human being
Niyi
gross anatomy is the study of body parts that can be seen with our naked eyes while micro anatomy involves the study of body parts that cannot be seen with our naked eyes but with the aid of a microscope
Oppong
gross means examination of specimen or tissue with bare (unaided ) eye while microscopic means examination of same with the help of microscope
Jamia
what is physiology
Waiswa Reply
what are blood pressure
Waiswa
physiology is the study of the normal functions of organs
Romaissaa
Blood pressure is a when systolic phase is 190 and diastolic phase 90.
Rahma
systolic phase is 180.not 190
Manish
explain the anatomy of the human heart
Maia Reply
is the scientific study of the body structure ie like structure very small which can be only observed.
Waiswa
where can I find the muscle organization
Taonga Reply
what is the physiology?
Josoph Reply
the study of functioning of body organs
Muskan
In other words... Physiology is the study of normal function within living creatures. It is a sub-section of biology, covering a range of topics that include organs, anatomy, cells, biological compounds, and how they all interact to make life possible.
Young
which part of the heart supply blood to all parts of the body
Waiswa
left heart supply all the body.
Rahma
what analysisof an anatomy
Waiswa
Okay thanks distinguish between blood pressure and body organs
Waiswa
branch of anatomy which deal with the life process and function
MT
how oxygen and carbondioxide are transported in the body.
riddon Reply
Through the lungs as we inhale oxygen it diffuses into the alveoli while carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood and from our bodies
Angel
from lungs o2 diffuses into blood capillaries from where it is bound to heam part of hb there after it is transported to different parts of body ...co2 that is produced during respiration in cells gets transported to lungs from lungs it gets exhalated
Jamia
o2 is mainly transported by hb present in blood while co2 is transported main as bicarbonate.. detailed topics
Malik

Get the best Anatomy & Physiology course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Anatomy & Physiology' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask