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Other plasma solutes

In addition to proteins, plasma contains a wide variety of other substances. These include various electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium ions; dissolved gases, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen; various organic nutrients, such as vitamins, lipids, glucose, and amino acids; and metabolic wastes. All of these nonprotein solutes combined contribute approximately 1 percent to the total volume of plasma.

Major blood components

This table lists the components of blood, the percentage of each component, their site of production, and their major functions.

Career connection

Phlebotomy and medical lab technology

Phlebotomists are professionals trained to draw blood (phleb- = “a blood vessel”; -tomy = “to cut”). When more than a few drops of blood are required, phlebotomists perform a venipuncture, typically of a surface vein in the arm. They perform a capillary stick on a finger, an earlobe, or the heel of an infant when only a small quantity of blood is required. An arterial stick is collected from an artery and used to analyze blood gases. After collection, the blood may be analyzed by medical laboratories or perhaps used for transfusions, donations, or research. While many allied health professionals practice phlebotomy, the American Society of Phlebotomy Technicians issues certificates to individuals passing a national examination, and some large labs and hospitals hire individuals expressly for their skill in phlebotomy.

Medical or clinical laboratories employ a variety of individuals in technical positions:

  • Medical technologists (MT), also known as clinical laboratory technologists (CLT), typically hold a bachelor’s degree and certification from an accredited training program. They perform a wide variety of tests on various body fluids, including blood. The information they provide is essential to the primary care providers in determining a diagnosis and in monitoring the course of a disease and response to treatment.
  • Medical laboratory technicians (MLT) typically have an associate’s degree but may perform duties similar to those of an MT.
  • Medical laboratory assistants (MLA) spend the majority of their time processing samples and carrying out routine assignments within the lab. Clinical training is required, but a degree may not be essential to obtaining a position.

Chapter review

Blood is a fluid connective tissue critical to the transportation of nutrients, gases, and wastes throughout the body; to defend the body against infection and other threats; and to the homeostatic regulation of pH, temperature, and other internal conditions. Blood is composed of formed elements—erythrocytes, leukocytes, and cell fragments called platelets—and a fluid extracellular matrix called plasma. More than 90 percent of plasma is water. The remainder is mostly plasma proteins—mainly albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen—and other dissolved solutes such as glucose, lipids, electrolytes, and dissolved gases. Because of the formed elements and the plasma proteins and other solutes, blood is sticky and more viscous than water. It is also slightly alkaline, and its temperature is slightly higher than normal body temperature.

Visit this site for a list of normal levels established for many of the substances found in a sample of blood. Serum, one of the specimen types included, refers to a sample of plasma after clotting factors have been removed. What types of measurements are given for levels of glucose in the blood?

There are values given for percent saturation, tension, and blood gas, and there are listings for different types of hemoglobin.

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Questions & Answers

what is homeostasis
julie Reply
internal temperature of body
Homeostasis is the internal constancy in which your body tries to maintain for optimal cellular functioning. For example, your body tries to maintain an internal body temperature of about 98.6F for optimal functioning of your body.
If a prolonged lost of homeostasis occurs, death of the organism will be the outcome.
Another example of homeostasis is that your body tries to maintain a specific blood sugar level, so that your cells can undergo constant cellular respiration and keep you alive.
which tissue is more sensitive
Rit Reply
to what?
explain types of hypertension
Juli Reply
What is bulbar paralysis?
Roshni Reply
how can make penis larger
Marwat Reply
what is the stimuli initiates the control of erythropoiesis?
Ok Reply
Erythropoietin, a hormone synthesized and released by the kidneys stimulate erythropoiesis in red bone marrow. When an Individual loses blood (hemorrhage) and the concentration of RBCs or oxygen decreases, erythropoitein will be released.
how lymph is from
Hafsa Reply
Lymph is essentially interstitial fluid that ends up in the lymphatic vessels that didn't go back into the venules. Lymph is composed of the same components as your blood plasma which contains water, solutes, oxygen, CO2, foreign particles such as toxins, bacteria and viruses.
what is the cause of twins
The cause of identical twins is when a single fertilized egg undergo mitosis (splits in two) . As a result, both eggs now have the same genetic information, therefore producing two identical twins.
how structure and function relate to each other?
This is a very important rule in Anatomy and Physiology. The structure of a cell, tissue, or organ will tell you a lot about it's function.
For example, simple columnar cells (enterocytes) in the villus present in the duodenum of the small intestine contain microvilli. Microvilli are finger like projections of the cell membrane (produce by the cytoskeleton)that increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients into the enterocytes.
The main role of these enterocytes is to absorb. Therefore, having Microvilli as a structure relates to its function.
@ Carmelo thanks for the answer.
what is anatomy
Kamran Reply
is simply defined as the stody of internal and external structure of human body and the relationships between the body part.
Anatomy Is The Study Of The Structure Of The Human body
anatomy is the science that deals with the study of the body structure
what is stress hyperglycaemia and Pathophysiology
Hyperglycemia is the term used when somebody is in a state of high blood sugar levels. For example, after you eat a meal with carbohydrates in it, (post-absorbptive state) your blood is hyperglycemic.
Pathophysiology is the study of how diseases function and cause abnormal functioning in the body. Usually pathophysiology is studied at a molecular/cellular level.
I meant to say absorbptive* state on explanation of hyperglycemia. Usually during post-absorbptive state your blood has low blood sugar levels.
what is sex?
Soumyakanta Reply
Your biological sex is determined by your sex chromosome which is pair number 23. if you have a XX pair then you are a female. if you have XY pair then you are a male.
the sex chromosomes are called as allosome
True, the other 22 pairs are called autosomes :)
why the left hemisphere controls the right side body parts and right hemisphere controls the left side body parts?
because it is like that
It has to do with how the neuronal pathway are intertwined to opposites sides of the body I think. A motor output from the left cerebral hemisphere (motor cortex) will end up stimulating your right side of the body.
brother Carmelo don't miander, sex ,it just the state of being a male or female
Your biological sex is tied to your DNA (genetic information). A male have testes and female have ovaries which are reproductive organs is tied to your genetic information (sex chromosome). If an individual feels like it is either a male or female is called gender identity.
thanks our beloved brother Carmelo
that's great learning something everyday
what is anatomy
most blood enters the ventricle during what phase?
Tina Reply
rapid ejection
Most of the blood in the heart enters the ventricles during the diastolic phase.
which of the following is the types of personal protective equipment protects mucous membranes?
Most (not all) mucous membranes secrete mucus because they contain goblet cells in between the epithelial tissue. Mucus coats the layers of epithelium and traps particles. The epithelial type is either stratified squamous, simple columnar, or pseudostratified columnar in mucous membranes.
Are you a professor Carmelo?
No sir, I'm a nursing and biology student as well in university.
why the fever occurs if any injury or pain occurs
fever is de best indication to show there is an infection
what is the actual mechanism of fever
correct Tanveer, the normal internal body temperature is 98.6 Fareinheit. When the temperature rises above 100 fareinheit, it is usually an indication of infection.
White blood cells which protect you against foreign antigens become active and release cytokines (pyrogens) during infection which causes the hypothalamus to raise your internal body temperature.
thank you so much.really you are very intelligent.
thank you. you are very intelligent
the mechanism of fever appears to be a defensive reaction by the body against infectious disease. when bacteria or viruses invade the body and cause tissue injury one of de body immune system's responses is to produce pyrogen
Yes, the hypothalamus responds to pyrogens by raising your body temperature. The reason your hypothalamus does this is to stunt the growth and metabolism of whatever is causing the infection (bacteria, virus, fungi protozoa, etc.)
how the kidney transplantation is done
Which university are you studying?
and all of you ,university
Really so talented
I was asking Carmelo?
Georgia State University.
oh nice! I'm in University of Texas
vicious this is chaptare I reading 5day after
pleas sir can u teach me
not sure, can u help me?
I'm in University of Technology, Jamaica
why do you not helf me
what difference exist between anatomy and physiology?
Collins Reply
Anatomy: study of the structure of the body parts and their relationship to one another
Physiology: Study of the function of body parts and how they work to carry out life-sustaining activities
physiology function and anatomy location
anatomy refers to the study of the body parts and their relationship to each other while physiology deals with functioning of those body parts
Yes of course.In layman language Anatomy is study of internal organs, whereas physiology is study of how those organs function. Anatomy is is related to how they look their shape size... Physiology is how they work
anotomy dealt with the external and internal stuctural features of body and their constituent physiology deals with the functioning or action of that stucture
Anatomy is the study of the structures (internal and external) of a living organism. Physiology is the study of how the structures of a living organism function often at a molecular and cellular level.
anatomy is the structure of different body parts of human body and physiology is the normal body function of body parts of the human body
anatomy is study of structure of the body e.g, system,organ's size shape location and physiology is the study of function of the body eg,eye ball movement , release of hormones , circulation of blood etc
thanks guys. I appreciate
thanks bro
Explain the meaning of life in a scientific manner
probably it doesn't have a meaning yet it can be realised by certain signs that have a scientifically defined terms?!!!!
At least in a scientific manner, scientists have agreed that production and use of cellular energy, as well as growth and reproduction are essential when defining what is alive in a biological sense. For example, viruses are not considered alive because they cannot grow or reproduce by themselves.
this virus issues is being challenged currently.
what z your conclusion over virus bro?
pipo what is the relationship between T- cells ( specifically T-helper), & all three line of defence mechanism
anatomy is the science that deals with the study of the human structure whilst physiology is a science that covers the function and process of the body structure.
defien brache of Anatomy
anatomy is the study of internal and external body parts while physiology is the science that covers the function and process of the body structure.
what is blood fluid
Adefarasin Reply
what is menstrual cycle
periodic flow of blood from the female human vigina, after an unfertlized egg has been released from the ovaries
the shedding of of the uterine walls,that occurs when fertilization doesn't occur
fertilization after occur menstrual cycle
it's called menses
menses:(menstrual cycle) A monthly shedding of uterine lining and blood. For up to 3 to 7 days every 28 days.
The menstrual cycle is divided into multiple phases. Menses is the last phase of the cycle when fertilization doesn't occur and endometrium of the uterus shed (stratum functionalis) due to lack of estrogen and progesterone signaling.
The lack of estrogen and progesterone signaling is due to the degeneration of the corpus lueteum when fertilization doesn't occur.
Blood fluid: Blood is composed of blood plasma + formed elements. The blood plasma is 55% of blood volume and it contains 90% of water. It also contains ions, hormones, gases, protein transporters, etc. Blood plasma is also considered extracellular fluid.
The formed elements of blood include RBCs (45-50% of blood), WBCs and Plalets (less than 1% of blood).
Almost forgot, blood plasma also carries nutrients which is obviously very important for survival.
we appreciate bro, our studies are becoming easy & easy
what difference between zink and jesta
Anurag Reply
what and where is the midsagittal
Akpeji Reply
the plane dividing the body longitudinal splitting right and left halves symmetrically
sagittal. mid sagittal
what is the main type of joints found in the axial skeletal
Bwendo Reply
Synovial joints
vertebra column and coccyx
pivot joint

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