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Water

Water usage can be minimized by using low-flow fixtures in restrooms, bathrooms, and kitchens. Dual-flush toilets allow for the user to have the option of select less water (e.g. for liquid waste) and more water (e.g. for solid waste) when flushing (See Figure Dual Flush Toilet ). These have long been in use in Europe, the Middle East and other places where water conservation is paramount. Fresh water consumption can be reduced further through the use of greywater    systems. These systems recycle water generated from activities such as hand washing, laundry, bathing, and dishwashing for irrigation of grounds and even for flushing toilets.

Dual-flush Toilet This toilet has two flush controls on the water tank. Pushing only the circular button releases half as much (0.8 gallons, 3 liters) water as pushing the outer button. Source: By Eugenio Hansen, OFS (Own work) [ CC-BY-SA-3.0 ], via Wikimedia Commons

Integrated design

Integrated design is a design process for a building that looks at the whole building, rather than its individual parts, for opportunities to reduce environmental impact. Incremental measures would include those approaches described above. To accomplish integrated design of a building, all parties involved in the design--architects, engineers, the client and other stakeholders--must work together. This collaborative approach results in a more harmonious coordination of the different components of a building such as the site, structure, systems, and ultimate use.

Standards of certification

Most countries establish certain standards to assure consistency, quality and safety in the design and construction of buildings. Green building standards provide guidelines to architects, engineers, building operators and owners that enhance building sustainability. Various green building standards have originated in different countries around the world, with differing goals, review processes and rating. In this section we will discuss a few examples.

A good certification system should be developed with expert feedback. In addition, it should be transparent, measurable, relevant and comparable.

  • Expert-based: Was input acquired from experts and professionals in the fields of design, construction, building operation and sustainability?
  • Transparent: Is information readily available to the public about how buildings are rated?
  • Measurable: Does the rating system use measurable characteristics to demonstrate the extent of sustainable design incorporated into the building? Does the system use life-cycle analysis to evaluate?
  • Relevance: Does the rating system provide a “whole building evaluation” rather than an evaluation of an individual design feature?
  • Comparable: Is the rating system able to compare building types, location, years, or different sustainable design features?
Comparison of Certification Systems Source: Klein-Banai, C.

System

Year established

Country of origin

Trans- parent

Expert-based

Measurable/ Uses LCA

Relevance

Comparable

BREEAM 1990 UK √* -
Green Globes 1996 Canada √/√
LEED 2000 US √/√ V 3.0
CASBEE 2001 Japan √/√
ENERGY STAR 1999 US # Only energy

*Only assessment prediction check lists available publicly

# Benchmarking tool developed by US EPA

Conclusion

The built environment is the largest manifestation of human life on the planet. Buildings have been essential for the survival of the human race, protecting us from the elements and forces of nature. However, they also consume a lot of material, energy and water, and they occupy land that might otherwise be undeveloped or used for agriculture. There are many ways to reduce that impact by building to a higher standard of conservation and reuse. There are a number of systems that can help architects, engineers, and planners to achieve those standards, and they should be selected with a full awareness of their limitations.

References

Fowler, K.M.&Rauch, E.M. (2008). Assessing green building performance. A post occupancy evaluation of 12 GSA buildings . (U.S. General Services Administration). PNNL-17393 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington. Retrieved from http://www.gsa.gov/graphics/pbs/GSA_Assessing_Green_Full_Report.pdf

Horvath, A. (2004). Construction materials and the environment. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 29 , 181-204.

Humphreys, K.&Mahasenan, M. (2002). Toward a Sustainable Cement Industry. Substudy 8, Climate Change. World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Retrieved from http://www.wbcsd.org/web/publications/batelle-full.pdf

Kats, G., Alevantis, L., Berman, A., Mills, E.&Perlman, J. (2003). The costs and financial benefits of green building: A report to California’s sustainable building task force. Retrieved from http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/News/News477.pdf

Turner, C.&Frankel, M. (2008). Energy performance of LEED for New Construction Buildings, Final Report . Retrieved from http://newbuildings.org/sites/default/files/Energy_Performance_of_LEED-NC_Buildings-Final_3-4-08b.pdf

U.S. Department of Energy. (2011). Energy savers: Furnaces and boilers . Retrieved from http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/space_heating_cooling/index.cfm/mytopic=12530

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (1987). The total exposure assessment methodology (TEAM) study (EPA 600/S6-87/002). Retrieved from http://exposurescience.org/pub/reports/TEAM_Study_book_1987.pdf

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (1998). Characterization of building-related construction and demolition debris in the United States . (Report No. EPA530-R-98-010). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/wastes/hazard/generation/sqg/cd-rpt.pdf

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Green Building Basic Information. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/greenbuilding/pubs/about.htm .

Review questions

What are the positive and negative impacts that buildings have on the environment and society?

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How can those impacts be reduced?

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What would be the advantages and disadvantages of demolishing an old building and replacing it with a new, highly “sustainable” building vs. renovating an old building to new standards?

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Sustainability: a comprehensive foundation. OpenStax CNX. Nov 11, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11325/1.43
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