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Properties of eukaryotic transcription

  • Complex!
  • RNA polymerase is the main protein that creates the RNA transcript
  • Proteins called transcription factors help RNA polymerase and regulate it's function.
  • 2 types of transcription factors: basal tfs and modulatory tfs.
  • Basal transcription factors - required for all transcription events.
  • Modulatory transcription factors - regulate expression of genes. Both positive and negative regulation.
  • Transcription factors can act from relatively far away. Up to 10kb!
  • pre-mRNA transcripts are spliced to remove exons.
  • Alternative splicing allows the cell to combine exons differently in the final mRNA transcript from the same pre-mRNA transcript.

Transcription in five easy steps

  • Transcription of DNA to pre-mRNA. DNA, RNA polymerase and transcription factors.
  • Addition of 5' methyl guanosine cap to pre-mRNA transcript.
  • Splicing of pre-mRNA transcript (yields mRNA proper)
  • Addition of 3' poly(A) tail to mRNA transcript.
  • mRNA is transported to the cytoplasm.

5 steps of mrna preparation

Rna polymerase - main protein that creates rna transcript.

RNA polynmerase is the protein whose job it is to 'read' the genetic code and create a complimentary RNA transcript from that code. Eukaryotes have three different types of RNA polymerases: RNA polymerase I, II, and III. RNA polymerase II is the from of polymerase that transcribes most genes and is the form of polymerase with which we need to concern ourselves.

Initiation of transcription

Transcription initiation in eukaryotes is complicated, and the details are not entirely understood (although we do have a good grasp on the basic mechanism). The fully assembled eukaryotic transcription inititation complex contains more than 50 polypeptides. RNA polymerase II has more than 10 polypeptide subunits by itself. Keep in mind that the process outlined below is a generalization, and any given, specific transcription event will probably vary some in the details. For example, although the TATA box is the most strongly conserved promoter sequence, it is by no means present in every eukaryotic promoter. Also, there is some debate as the importance of the order of the binding of the proteins in the initiation complex: it was thought that a specific order was vital, now, however, new evidence suggests that reaching the end binding state may be what is really important, whatever the order.

Transcription factors - help/regulate rna polymerase's function

Transcription factors (tfs) are proteins involved with transcription - except for RNA polymerase. Transcription factors can be broken down into two groups: basal tfs and modulatory tfs. Eukaryotic RNA polymerases are not capable of initiating transcription alone, they require the assistance of a set of basal transcription factors. Basal tfs assist RNA polymerase in the recognition of promoter sequences and unwiding the DNA double helix, among other functions. Basal tfs are necessary for every transcription event. Modulatory transcription factors regulate the expression of a gene, or a set of gene. These tfs are important because they allow the body to differentially express genes at different times and different places in the body. Modulatory tfs are vital for multicellular life. They allow the body to create different cells, tissues, and organs.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Statistical machine learning for computational biology. OpenStax CNX. Oct 14, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10455/1.2
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