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Inflation around the world

Around the rest of the world, the pattern of inflation has been very mixed, as can be seen in [link] which shows inflation rates over the last several decades. Many industrialized countries, not just the United States, had relatively high inflation rates in the 1970s. For example, in 1975, Japan’s inflation rate was over 8% and the inflation rate for the United Kingdom was almost 25%. In the 1980s, inflation rates came down in the United States and in Europe and have largely stayed down.

Countries with relatively low inflation rates, 1960–2014

The graph shows that the United States, Japan, Germany, and the United Kingdom all had periods of high inflation in the 1970s and early 1980s, though Germany did not have nearly the high rates of inflation as seen in the other countries. Since the early 1990s, all four countries have had inflation rates below 5%, with Japan’s rate consistently lower than those of Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. However, the graph also shows that, as of 2014, Japan had the highest inflation rate of the four.
This chart shows the annual percentage change in consumer prices compared with the previous year’s consumer prices in the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, and Germany.

Countries with controlled economies in the 1970s, like the Soviet Union and China, historically had very low rates of measured inflation—because prices were forbidden to rise by law, except for the cases where the government deemed a price increase to be due to quality improvements. However, these countries also had perpetual shortages of goods, since forbidding prices to rise acts like a price ceiling and creates a situation where quantity demanded often exceeds quantity supplied. As Russia and China made a transition toward more market-oriented economies, they also experienced outbursts of inflation, although the statistics for these economies should be regarded as somewhat shakier. Inflation in China averaged about 10% per year for much of the 1980s and early 1990s, although it has dropped off since then. Russia experienced hyperinflation    —an outburst of high inflation—of 2,500% per year in the early 1990s, although by 2006 Russia’s consumer price inflation had dipped below 10% per year, as shown in [link] . The closest the United States has ever gotten to hyperinflation was during the Civil War, 1860–1865, in the Confederate states.

Countries with relatively high inflation rates, 1980–2013

The first graph shows that Brazil had an extremely high inflation rate, over 2000%, in 1990. The second graph, which is on a smaller scale, shows that Russia had a spike in its inflation rate in the late 1990s. Though Russia's rates have all been lower over the last decade, they are still relatively high rates.
These charts show the percentage change in consumer prices compared with the previous year’s consumer prices in Brazil, China, and Russia. (a) Of these, Brazil and Russia experienced hyperinflation at some point between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s. (b) Though not as high, China and Nigeria also had high inflation rates in the mid-1990s. Even though their inflation rates have come down over the last two decades, several of these countries continue to see significant inflation rates. (Sources: http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/FPCPITOTLZGBRA; http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/CHNCPIALLMINMEI; http://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/FPCPITOTLZGRUS)

Many countries in Latin America experienced raging hyperinflation during the 1980s and early 1990s, with inflation rates often well above 100% per year. In 1990, for example, both Brazil and Argentina saw inflation climb above 2000%. Certain countries in Africa experienced extremely high rates of inflation, sometimes bordering on hyperinflation, in the 1990s. Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, had an inflation rate of 75% in 1995.

In the early 2000s, the problem of inflation appears to have diminished for most countries, at least in comparison to the worst times of recent decades. As we noted in this earlier Bring it Home feature, in recent years, the world’s worst example of hyperinflation was in Zimbabwe, where at one point the government was issuing bills with a face value of $100 trillion (in Zimbabwean dollars)—that is, the bills had $100,000,000,000,000 written on the front, but were almost worthless. In many countries, the memory of double-digit, triple-digit, and even quadruple-digit inflation is not very far in the past.

Key concepts and summary

In the U.S. economy, the annual inflation rate in the last two decades has typically been around 2% to 4%. The periods of highest inflation in the United States in the twentieth century occurred during the years after World Wars I and II, and in the 1970s. The period of lowest inflation—actually, with deflation—was the Great Depression of the 1930s.

Problems

Within 1 or 2 percentage points, what has the U.S. inflation rate been during the last 20 years? Draw a graph to show the data.

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Questions & Answers

why our wants are limited
Npoanlarb Reply
nooo want is unlimited but resources are limited
Ruchi
and do to that there occurs scarcity and we have to make choice in order to have what we need if need be I will explain more
Madara
our wants are not limited but rather the resources
Moses
what is demand
Thank Reply
demand is something wt we called in economic theory of demand it simply means if price of product is increase then demand of product will decrease
Ruchi
inverse relationship between demand and price
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in microeconomic
Ruchi
demand is what and how much you want and what's your need...
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because demand is increase
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Shuaib Reply
deman is amount of goods and services a consumer is willing and able to buy or purchase at a given price.
Sainabou
the willingness and ability of a body to purchase goods nd servicesbis called demand ,so if she/has ability but doesn't have willingness it's not a demand same if she or he has willingness but doesn't has ability it's not a demand too
Gul
Demand refers to as quantities of a goods and services in which consumers are willing and able to purchase at a given period of time and demand can also be defined as the desire or willingness and backed by the ability to pay.
Fadiga
Yeah
Mathias
What is Choice
Kofi
Choice refers to the ability of a consumer or producer to decide which good, service or resource to purchase or provide from a range of possible options. Being free to chose is regarded as a fundamental indicator of economic well being and development.
Shonal
how does consumer make profit
Clifford Reply
Compare and contract the function of commercial bank and the central bank of Nigeria
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what do think is the difference between overhead costs and prime cost
Abdoulkarim
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economics is a social science that study's how resources can be used to produce goods and services for society
Nathan
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John Reply
rules
Buayadarat_Gaming
unlimited wants vs limited resources
Nathan
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Austen Reply
Paradigm shift it is the reconcilliation of fedural goods in production
Shyline
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crux
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crux
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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of economics. OpenStax CNX. Sep 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11613/1.11
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