<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
A list of future ideas for the musical recognition project.

A number of changes and additions to this project would help it to scale better and be more statistically accurate. Such changes should help the project to handle more complex signals and operate over a larger number of musical instruments.

Improving the gaussian mixture model

To improve the statistical accuracy, the Gaussian Mixture Model used in this project must improve. The features of this model help determine its accuracy, and choosing appropriate additional features is a step towards improving the project. These features may include modeling additional temporal, spectral, harmonic and perceptual properties of the signals, and will help to better distinguish between musical instruments. Temporal features were left out of this project, as they are difficult to analyze in polyphonic signals. However, these features are useful in distinguishing between musical instruments. Articulation, in particular, is useful in distinguishing a trumpet sound, and articulation is by its very nature a temporal feature.

Additionally, more analysis of what features are included in the Gaussian Mixture Model is necessary to improve the statistical accuracy. Too many features, or features that do not adequately distinguish between the instruments, can actually diminish the quality of the output. Such features could respond to the environment noise in a given signal, or to differences between players on the same instrument, more easily than they distinguish between instruments themselves, and this is not desirable. Ideally, this project would involve retesting the sample data with various combinations of feature sets to find the optimal Gaussian Mixture Model.

Improving training data

As training data for this experiment, we used chromatic scales for each instrument over its entire effective range, taken in a single recording session in a relatively low noise environment. To improve this project, the GMM should be trained with multiple players on each instrument, and should include a variety of music - not just the chromatic scale. It should also inlude training data from a number of musical environments with varying levels of noise, as the test data that later is passed through the GMM can hardly be expected to be recorded under the same conditions as the training recordings.

Additionally, the training of the GMM would be improved if it could be initially trained on some polyphonic signals, in addition to the monophonic signals that it is currently trained with. Polyphonic training data was left out of this project due to the complexity of implementation, but it could improve the statistical accuracy of the GMM when decomposing polyphonic test signals.

Increasing the scope

In addition to training the GMM for other players on the three instruments used in this project, to truly decode an arbitrary musical signal, additional instruments must be added. This includes other woodwinds and brass, from flutes and double reeds to french horns and tubas, to strings and percussion. The GMM would likely need to extensively train on similar instruments to properly distinguish between them, and it is unlikely that it would ever be able to distinguish between the sounds of extremely similar instruments, such as a trumpet and a cornet, or a baritone and a euphonium. Such instruments are so similar that few humans can even discern the subtle differences between them, and the sounds produced by these instruments vary more from player to player than between, say, a trumpet and a cornet.

Further, the project would need to include other families of instruments not yet taken into consideration, such as strings and percussion. Strings and tuned percussion, such as xylophones, produce very different tones than wind instruments, and would likely be easy to decompose. Untuned percussion, however, such as cymbals or a cowbell, would be very difficult to add to this project without modifying it, adding features specifically to detect such instruments. Detecting these instruments would require adding temporal features to the GMM, and would likely entail adding an entire beat detection system to the project.

Improving pitch detection

For the most part, and especially in the classical genre, music is written to sound pleasing to the ear. Multiple notes playing at the same time will usually be harmonic ratios of one another, either thirds, or fifths, or octaves. With this knowledge, once we have determined the pitch of the first note, we can determine what pitch the next note is likely to be. Our current system detects the pitch at each window without any dependence on the previously detected note. A better model would track the notes and continue detecting the same pitch until the note ends. Furthermore, Hidden Markov Models have been shown useful in tracking melodies, and such a tracking system could also be incorporated for better pitch detection.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Musical instrument recognition. OpenStax CNX. Dec 14, 2005 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10313/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Musical instrument recognition' conversation and receive update notifications?