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Virtually from the beginning of the history of the United States as an independent nation, enterprising individuals in theexecutive branch have recognized that a liberal approach to federal involvement in science for defense purposes could be used to justify broader non-defensefederal involvement. A classic example is President Thomas Jefferson’s national defense argument for the Lewis and Clark Expedition, positing that an overland route from the western boundary of the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase to thePacific Ocean was essential for both commercial and long-range defense considerations. Dupree, op. cit. , 24-29. Subsequent geographical, geological, botanical, and ethnographic surveys of the Western lands, along withcoastal surveys and oceanic and polar expeditions, were similarly justified.

The military also provided an initial safe haven for federal intrusion into astronomical observation, standard-setting,meteorology, medicine, public health, and—more recently—nuclear energy, computers, and solid-state electronics. Many scientific capabilities nurturedand legitimized in military departments were eventually spun off to civilian- oriented cabinet departments or new, independent agencies. Some examples: theCoast and Geodetic Survey (1878), Ibid., 203. the U.S. Geological Survey (1879), Ibid., 208-11. the Weather Bureau (1890), Ibid., 192. the National Bureau of Standards (1902), Ibid., 281. and the Public Health Service (1912). Ibid., 291. And the first federal organization to provide support for basic research inuniversities was the Office of Naval Research, by act of Congress in 1946.

Congress saw clear advantages to having non- military federal organizations responsible for scientific research. For onething, the arrangement gave Congress more oversight into the activities of the non-military bureaus.

Impacts of military crises

Generally, military considerations sparked by actual or potential crises have been responsible for repeated attempts tostrengthen institutional links between government and non-government science. The National Academy of Sciences was established during the Civil War andchartered to provide advice to the federal government when requested. Ibid., 263. However, until the late 1940s, such requests were rare. The National Research Council was established in an attemptto revitalize the NAS system during World War I. The National Research Council and its constituent bodies, the National Academy of Science, the National Academy of Sciences, and theInstitute of Medicine, are chartered by the U.S. Congress to undertake studies at the request of executive branch agencies and congressional committees.Studies produced by panels convened by these bodies have a justifiably excellent record for maintaining their objectivity, despite their sponsor. Beginning inthe 1970s, the NAS began to acquire an endowment so that it could undertake studies on its own initiative. Members of NRC panels and those of its parentorganizations receive no honoraria for their participation. Precedents established by Vannevar Bush's World War II OSRD underlay much of thepostwar debate about the institutional details of U.S. science policy and the conceptual framework for a national science policy.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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