<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Virtually from the beginning of the history of the United States as an independent nation, enterprising individuals in theexecutive branch have recognized that a liberal approach to federal involvement in science for defense purposes could be used to justify broader non-defensefederal involvement. A classic example is President Thomas Jefferson’s national defense argument for the Lewis and Clark Expedition, positing that an overland route from the western boundary of the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase to thePacific Ocean was essential for both commercial and long-range defense considerations. Dupree, op. cit. , 24-29. Subsequent geographical, geological, botanical, and ethnographic surveys of the Western lands, along withcoastal surveys and oceanic and polar expeditions, were similarly justified.

The military also provided an initial safe haven for federal intrusion into astronomical observation, standard-setting,meteorology, medicine, public health, and—more recently—nuclear energy, computers, and solid-state electronics. Many scientific capabilities nurturedand legitimized in military departments were eventually spun off to civilian- oriented cabinet departments or new, independent agencies. Some examples: theCoast and Geodetic Survey (1878), Ibid., 203. the U.S. Geological Survey (1879), Ibid., 208-11. the Weather Bureau (1890), Ibid., 192. the National Bureau of Standards (1902), Ibid., 281. and the Public Health Service (1912). Ibid., 291. And the first federal organization to provide support for basic research inuniversities was the Office of Naval Research, by act of Congress in 1946.

Congress saw clear advantages to having non- military federal organizations responsible for scientific research. For onething, the arrangement gave Congress more oversight into the activities of the non-military bureaus.

Impacts of military crises

Generally, military considerations sparked by actual or potential crises have been responsible for repeated attempts tostrengthen institutional links between government and non-government science. The National Academy of Sciences was established during the Civil War andchartered to provide advice to the federal government when requested. Ibid., 263. However, until the late 1940s, such requests were rare. The National Research Council was established in an attemptto revitalize the NAS system during World War I. The National Research Council and its constituent bodies, the National Academy of Science, the National Academy of Sciences, and theInstitute of Medicine, are chartered by the U.S. Congress to undertake studies at the request of executive branch agencies and congressional committees.Studies produced by panels convened by these bodies have a justifiably excellent record for maintaining their objectivity, despite their sponsor. Beginning inthe 1970s, the NAS began to acquire an endowment so that it could undertake studies on its own initiative. Members of NRC panels and those of its parentorganizations receive no honoraria for their participation. Precedents established by Vannevar Bush's World War II OSRD underlay much of thepostwar debate about the institutional details of U.S. science policy and the conceptual framework for a national science policy.

Questions & Answers

is economics important in programming world?
Abdul Reply
What is oppunity cost
Kudzanayi Reply
it refers wants that are left unsatisfied in Oder satisfy another more pressing need
Osei
Thank bro
Kudzanayi
is the second altenative to foregone
swedy
How does monopoly and imperfect competion;public goods externalities ass symmetric information, ommon property ressourses; income distribution Merit goods and Macroeconomic growth and stability causes market failure?
Gcina
it is where by a labour moves from one place to another
Amoako Reply
yh
Osei
another
Amoako
yh
Osei
ok
Amoako
what is mobility of labour
George Reply
who best defined economics
paul Reply
what are the importance of economics
Adwoa Reply
answer
Asamoah
trade should be best
Aakash
help to know how our government operates in which system
swedy
1. To solve economic problems. 2. To predict economic event. 3. It also offer intellectual training to students.
samuel
How price elasticity can affect the markets of certain goods
Rhoda Reply
Heyy thanks for the teaching
Easter Reply
what is labour
Arthur Reply
Mental and physical ability of human being is considered as labour.
JEYARAM
and usually provided by human
KEMAWOR
is all human effort both physical and mental abilities to work
Asamoah
why is it that most countries in Africa abuse available resources
Okeoghene Reply
What is economics
Bright Reply
economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends, scarce means which have alternative uses.
prince
Why is scarcity a mind problem in economics
Alima Reply
because of the problem of allocation of resources
Osola
unequalled distribution of resources
Agyen
thanks
Alima
scarcity is a mind problem due to circumstances like when a particular product is demand in a high rate at the market.
Saihou
scarcity defines limited in supply relative to the demand them. so scarcity is a mind problem in economics because wants are unlimited while resources are also limited.
prince
it is a mind problem because it's one of the fundamental issue address by economics human wants are unlimited and resources available are limited this makes the study of economics essential
rashid
its a fundamental issue
zahid
it's not a mind problem, I think it's a economic problem, how to allocate scarce resources to satisfy need and want of society
Samiullah
Identify the different sectors in the economy
Moses Reply
what is economics
Moses
economic is study of human behaviour according to how they satisfie their numerous want
Osola
Economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scares resources.
JEYARAM
economic is study of human behaviour according to how they satisfie their numerous want
Amar
what is the law of demand
Adugbire Reply
the lower the price the higher the quantity demanded vice versa is true
Nadhin
yes
vivek
yes ooh
Asamoah
right
samuel
what are relationship between unemployment and economic growth
Weness Reply
no relationship
Awuah
When there is economic growth, there is increased opportunity in employment. When there is no economic growth mean there is recession causing a decline or downsizing in employment opportunities.
Teescou
unemployment or employment determined by the level of economic growth
Osola
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask