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Virtually from the beginning of the history of the United States as an independent nation, enterprising individuals in theexecutive branch have recognized that a liberal approach to federal involvement in science for defense purposes could be used to justify broader non-defensefederal involvement. A classic example is President Thomas Jefferson’s national defense argument for the Lewis and Clark Expedition, positing that an overland route from the western boundary of the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase to thePacific Ocean was essential for both commercial and long-range defense considerations. Dupree, op. cit. , 24-29. Subsequent geographical, geological, botanical, and ethnographic surveys of the Western lands, along withcoastal surveys and oceanic and polar expeditions, were similarly justified.

The military also provided an initial safe haven for federal intrusion into astronomical observation, standard-setting,meteorology, medicine, public health, and—more recently—nuclear energy, computers, and solid-state electronics. Many scientific capabilities nurturedand legitimized in military departments were eventually spun off to civilian- oriented cabinet departments or new, independent agencies. Some examples: theCoast and Geodetic Survey (1878), Ibid., 203. the U.S. Geological Survey (1879), Ibid., 208-11. the Weather Bureau (1890), Ibid., 192. the National Bureau of Standards (1902), Ibid., 281. and the Public Health Service (1912). Ibid., 291. And the first federal organization to provide support for basic research inuniversities was the Office of Naval Research, by act of Congress in 1946.

Congress saw clear advantages to having non- military federal organizations responsible for scientific research. For onething, the arrangement gave Congress more oversight into the activities of the non-military bureaus.

Impacts of military crises

Generally, military considerations sparked by actual or potential crises have been responsible for repeated attempts tostrengthen institutional links between government and non-government science. The National Academy of Sciences was established during the Civil War andchartered to provide advice to the federal government when requested. Ibid., 263. However, until the late 1940s, such requests were rare. The National Research Council was established in an attemptto revitalize the NAS system during World War I. The National Research Council and its constituent bodies, the National Academy of Science, the National Academy of Sciences, and theInstitute of Medicine, are chartered by the U.S. Congress to undertake studies at the request of executive branch agencies and congressional committees.Studies produced by panels convened by these bodies have a justifiably excellent record for maintaining their objectivity, despite their sponsor. Beginning inthe 1970s, the NAS began to acquire an endowment so that it could undertake studies on its own initiative. Members of NRC panels and those of its parentorganizations receive no honoraria for their participation. Precedents established by Vannevar Bush's World War II OSRD underlay much of thepostwar debate about the institutional details of U.S. science policy and the conceptual framework for a national science policy.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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