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The purpose of this module is to explain the use of functions, methods, and procedures in other programming languages, and to show you how to accomplish much of that using the new custom block feature of Scratch 2.0.

Table of contents


Scratch 2.0 (released May 9, 2013) is the second major version of Scratch to be released during the life of the product. Among other things, it features a redesigned editor andwebsite, and allows you to edit projects directly from your web browser.

This module (tutorial) is one in a collection of modules designed to help beginners of all ages (8 and up) learn how to create the code forcomputer programs using Scratch 2.0 . Information is provided not only for the beginners themselves but also for theirparents and teachers where appropriate.

The purpose of this module is to explain the use of functions, methods, and procedures in other programming languages, and to show you how to accomplishmuch of that using the new custom block feature of Scratch 2.0.

Viewing tip

I recommend that you open another copy of this module in a separate browser window and use the following links to easily find and view the imageswhile you are reading about them.


  • Image A . The More Blocks toolbox.
  • Image B . Access to Scratch 2.0 math functions.
  • Image C . Mathematical functions available in Scratch 2.0.
  • Image D . Program code for CustomBlockTest01.
  • Image E . Output from CustomBlockTest01.
  • Image F . Program code for CustomBlockTest02.


Modular programming code (methods, subroutines, functions, procedures, or whatever you choose to call them) have been used in computer programming since the early days of programming. Such coding modules are often called bythese and various other names.

The new ability in Scratch 2.0 to create custom blocks can be used to provide much of the same modular functionality.

Calculate the square root

Suppose that your program needs to calculate the square root of a number.

In case you don't know what it means to compute the square root of a number, don't worry about it. Suffice it to say that it is a fairly complexmathematical process that requires a non-trivial amount of computer program code to accomplish.

Referring back to your high-school algebra book, you could refresh your memory on how to calculate a square root. Then you could construct the algorithmdescribing that process. Having the algorithm available, you could write the code to calculate the square root and insert that code into your program code.Then you run your program.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Teaching beginners to code. OpenStax CNX. May 27, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11498/1.20
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