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(v) Programme budgeting – is a method of budgeting whereby the resources available to a school are matched to the school’s priorities and “finalized” via a reconciliation process

(vi) Coombs and Hallak (1972; 257) recommend that a cost benefit analysis be incorporated into the budgeting process. Conventional budgets and accounts, though useful for certain purposes, for example, assisting auditors, guarding against misappropriation of funds, and so on but are of limited value to compare the efficiency of the educational system.

Schools need to adopt a system that fits their own needs. Simpkins and Lancaster in Knight (1993; 140), adapted, suggest a wide range of possible criteria:

  • equitable allocation to the needs of different subjects
  • taking cognizance of the schools priorities
  • facilitation of long term planning
  • ability to react to environmental change
  • take into account abilities to spend (wisely)
  • be easily understood and widely accepted

In relation to the budgeting process, the FINCOM has four main tasks:

Planning the budget

Planning the budget involves joint decision making by all stakeholders represented on the school governing body in respect of financial resource allocation, distribution and spending. This planning is goal orientated and thus focuses on the question: How best can we use the available resources to improve the performance of our learners? [Marishane and Botha (2004; 108)]. The cost allocations must consider efficiency, effectiveness and economy and the distribution of the budget should consider redress and equity.

(ii)implementing the budget

Implementing the budget involves the actual spending of the funds allocated to each programme and / or committee. It will also involve generating the funds required to fund the programmes and / or committees.

(iii)monitoring the budget

Monitoring the budget involves the development of a control system or monitoring instrument – monitoring has also been referred to as budget variance reporting, that is, on a month by month basis the actual expenditure (and income) is compared with budgeted expenditure (income) and any variance must be identified, investigated and explained in order to avoid over expenditure.

(iv)evaluating the budget

Evaluating the budget involves, according to Marishane and Botha (2004; 109), a critical examination of the extent to which the money allocated to the various programmes and committees managed to achieve (the schools) objectives.

Roles and responsibilities of stakeholders

The South African Schools Act provides that the governance of a public school is vested in its governing body, which stands in a position of trust towards the school. SASA also stipulates that the school principal, under the authority of the Head of Department, must undertake the professional management of a public school. Figure 3 shows where a school governing body fits into the provincial school governance structure.

Figure 3: SGBs Position in School Governance

Source: Understanding the S A Schools Act (1997; 15)

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
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What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
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what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Damian Reply
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Financial management of schools. OpenStax CNX. Nov 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11137/1.1
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