# 3.3 Power functions and polynomial functions

 Page 1 / 19
In this section, you will:
• Identify power functions.
• Identify end behavior of power functions.
• Identify polynomial functions.
• Identify the degree and leading coefficient of polynomial functions.

Suppose a certain species of bird thrives on a small island. Its population over the last few years is shown in [link] .

 Year $2009$ $2010$ $2011$ $2012$ $2013$ Bird Population $800$ $897$ $992$ $1,083$ $1,169$

The population can be estimated using the function $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}P\left(t\right)=-0.3{t}^{3}+97t+800,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ where $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}P\left(t\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ represents the bird population on the island $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ years after 2009. We can use this model to estimate the maximum bird population and when it will occur. We can also use this model to predict when the bird population will disappear from the island. In this section, we will examine functions that we can use to estimate and predict these types of changes.

## Identifying power functions

In order to better understand the bird problem, we need to understand a specific type of function. A power function is a function with a single term that is the product of a real number, a coefficient, and a variable raised to a fixed real number. (A number that multiplies a variable raised to an exponent is known as a coefficient.)

As an example, consider functions for area or volume. The function for the area of a circle with radius $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}r\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is

$A\left(r\right)=\pi {r}^{2}$

and the function for the volume of a sphere with radius $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}r\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is

$V\left(r\right)=\frac{4}{3}\pi {r}^{3}$

Both of these are examples of power functions because they consist of a coefficient, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\pi \text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ or $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{4}{3}\pi ,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ multiplied by a variable $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}r\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ raised to a power.

## Power function

A power function    is a function that can be represented in the form

$f\left(x\right)=k{x}^{p}$

where $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}p\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ are real numbers, and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is known as the coefficient    .

Is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={2}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ a power function?

No. A power function contains a variable base raised to a fixed power. This function has a constant base raised to a variable power. This is called an exponential function, not a power function.

## Identifying power functions

Which of the following functions are power functions?

All of the listed functions are power functions.

The constant and identity functions are power functions because they can be written as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={x}^{0}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={x}^{1}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ respectively.

The quadratic and cubic functions are power functions with whole number powers $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={x}^{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={x}^{3}.$

The reciprocal and reciprocal squared functions are power functions with negative whole number powers because they can be written as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={x}^{-1}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={x}^{-2}.$

The square and cube root functions are power functions with fractional powers because they can be written as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={x}^{1/2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ or $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={x}^{1/3}.$

Which functions are power functions?

$\begin{array}{l}f\left(x\right)=2{x}^{2}\cdot 4{x}^{3}\hfill \\ g\left(x\right)=-{x}^{5}+5{x}^{3}-4x\hfill \\ h\left(x\right)=\frac{2{x}^{5}-1}{3{x}^{2}+4}\hfill \end{array}$

$f\left(x\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is a power function because it can be written as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)=8{x}^{5}.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ The other functions are not power functions.

## Identifying end behavior of power functions

[link] shows the graphs of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={x}^{2},\text{\hspace{0.17em}}g\left(x\right)={x}^{4}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{and}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}h\left(x\right)={x}^{6},\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ which are all power functions with even, whole-number powers. Notice that these graphs have similar shapes, very much like that of the quadratic function in the toolkit. However, as the power increases, the graphs flatten somewhat near the origin and become steeper away from the origin.

can you not take the square root of a negative number
Suppose P= {-3,1,3} Q={-3,-2-1} and R= {-2,2,3}.what is the intersection
can I get some pretty basic questions
In what way does set notation relate to function notation
Ama
is precalculus needed to take caculus
It depends on what you already know. Just test yourself with some precalculus questions. If you find them easy, you're good to go.
Spiro
the solution doesn't seem right for this problem
what is the domain of f(x)=x-4/x^2-2x-15 then
x is different from -5&3
Seid
All real x except 5 and - 3
Spiro
how to prroved cos⁴x-sin⁴x= cos²x-sin²x are equal
Don't think that you can.
Elliott
how do you provided cos⁴x-sin⁴x = cos²x-sin²x are equal
What are the question marks for?
Elliott
Someone should please solve it for me Add 2over ×+3 +y-4 over 5 simplify (×+a)with square root of two -×root 2 all over a multiply 1over ×-y{(×-y)(×+y)} over ×y
For the first question, I got (3y-2)/15 Second one, I got Root 2 Third one, I got 1/(y to the fourth power) I dont if it's right cause I can barely understand the question.
Is under distribute property, inverse function, algebra and addition and multiplication function; so is a combined question
Abena
find the equation of the line if m=3, and b=-2
graph the following linear equation using intercepts method. 2x+y=4
Ashley
how
Wargod
what?
John
ok, one moment
UriEl
how do I post your graph for you?
UriEl
it won't let me send an image?
UriEl
also for the first one... y=mx+b so.... y=3x-2
UriEl
y=mx+b you were already given the 'm' and 'b'. so.. y=3x-2
Tommy
Please were did you get y=mx+b from
Abena
y=mx+b is the formula of a straight line. where m = the slope & b = where the line crosses the y-axis. In this case, being that the "m" and "b", are given, all you have to do is plug them into the formula to complete the equation.
Tommy
thanks Tommy
Nimo
0=3x-2 2=3x x=3/2 then . y=3/2X-2 I think
Given
co ordinates for x x=0,(-2,0) x=1,(1,1) x=2,(2,4)
neil
"7"has an open circle and "10"has a filled in circle who can I have a set builder notation
Where do the rays point?
Spiro
x=-b+_Гb2-(4ac) ______________ 2a
I've run into this: x = r*cos(angle1 + angle2) Which expands to: x = r(cos(angle1)*cos(angle2) - sin(angle1)*sin(angle2)) The r value confuses me here, because distributing it makes: (r*cos(angle2))(cos(angle1) - (r*sin(angle2))(sin(angle1)) How does this make sense? Why does the r distribute once
so good
abdikarin
this is an identity when 2 adding two angles within a cosine. it's called the cosine sum formula. there is also a different formula when cosine has an angle minus another angle it's called the sum and difference formulas and they are under any list of trig identities
strategies to form the general term
carlmark
consider r(a+b) = ra + rb. The a and b are the trig identity.
Mike
How can you tell what type of parent function a graph is ?
generally by how the graph looks and understanding what the base parent functions look like and perform on a graph
William
if you have a graphed line, you can have an idea by how the directions of the line turns, i.e. negative, positive, zero
William
y=x will obviously be a straight line with a zero slope
William
y=x^2 will have a parabolic line opening to positive infinity on both sides of the y axis vice versa with y=-x^2 you'll have both ends of the parabolic line pointing downward heading to negative infinity on both sides of the y axis
William
y=x will be a straight line, but it will have a slope of one. Remember, if y=1 then x=1, so for every unit you rise you move over positively one unit. To get a straight line with a slope of 0, set y=1 or any integer.
Aaron
yes, correction on my end, I meant slope of 1 instead of slope of 0
William
what is f(x)=
I don't understand
Joe
Typically a function 'f' will take 'x' as input, and produce 'y' as output. As 'f(x)=y'. According to Google, "The range of a function is the complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable (y, usually), after we have substituted the domain."
Thomas
Sorry, I don't know where the "Â"s came from. They shouldn't be there. Just ignore them. :-)
Thomas
Darius
Thanks.
Thomas
Â
Thomas
It is the Â that should not be there. It doesn't seem to show if encloses in quotation marks. "Â" or 'Â' ... Â
Thomas
Now it shows, go figure?
Thomas