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NOTE: Add Map 36: Division of Charlegmagne's Empire at Verdun in 843

Map taken from Reference 97.

As the old Frankish kingdom disintegrated in the early century, the separate duchies previously present reappeared as independent political units. These were the stem

From "Stamm", meaning "tribe"
duchies of Frisia (Lowlands), Saxony, Franconia (along the Maine), Swabia, Thuringia (between the Weser and Elbe) and Bavaria. These were based originally on ethnic unity and this particularism made unification of Germany forever difficult. (Ref. 184 )

In 857 there a serious outbreak of ergotism in which thousands of Germans died, poisoned by their daily rye bread which contained a fungus producing some 20 poisons (including LSD). The disease produced abdominal pain, delirium, gangrene and sometimes death, or alternately it caused an acute inflammation of the skin, driving people to insanity and giving it its common name of "Holy fire". (Ref. 211 ) The only physicians present were part of the monastic environment and much of their labor was devoted to prayer, laying on of hands, exorcising, use of amulets, holy oil, relics of saints and other elements of supernaturalism rather than to rational procedures. (Ref. 125 )

By treaty in 870 Germany was extended from the Rhine to the Elbe. The limits between the Germans and the Slavs generally followed the Elbe between the North Sea and the mountains of Bohemia. Although this line of demarcation did not last for long, it has through the centuries assumed some political, economic and social importance. As noted previously, to the west of the Elbe is old Germany, to the east is new Germany. The latter became the area of the Junkers, with large estates dominating a servile peasantry, with a large Slavic element in the population. A skeleton of imperial power continued even after Ludwig's death. The last of the direct Caroling ian line, Karl (Charles) the Fat, abdicated in 887. Three weak kings filled the next thirty year gap, until the rule was taken over in the next century by the Saxon kings.

Austria

Charlemagne's "Ostmark", bounded by the rivers Enns, Raab and Drau, with a fortress at Vienna, lasted until about 880, when the Frankish forces were defeated by the Magyars who had occupied Hungary and then moved into Austria. (Ref. 175 )

Hungary

In the early century Hungary was lightly held by the Bulgar Khanate, but near the end of the century when the Magyars were finally squeezed entirely out of Russia by the Patzinaks (Pechnegi), they swept through the upper Balkans and took over and settled Hungary. The "native" Szekels were few and scattered and offered little resistance. The Magyars were basically a Finnish people who had an infusion of Turkish blood which had been added while they were living on the Don River and were joined by three hordes of the Khazars from the Volga mouth. The Magyars were free horsemen, living in clans and tribes and using slaves taken from among the Slavs. They spoke the Ugric language of the Finno-Ugric group of Uralic languages. Formerly it was erroneously thought that these people were basically Mongolian or Hunnish, but this is not accurate and they came originally from the Ural Mountains area, not farther east. In Asia, they were called Ugri, from their Ugric language and from this has come our word "ogre". (Ref. 137 )

Questions & Answers

what does it array
Cbdishakur Reply
what are the differences between monopoly and.oligopoly
Onome Reply
what are the difference between monopoly and oligopoly
Cbdishakur
The deference between Monopoly and Oligopoly: Monopoly means:A single-firm-Industry producing and selling a product having no close business and Oligopoly means:A market structure where a few sellers compete with each other and each controls a significant portion of market .
Basanta
so that the price-output policy one affects the other.
Basanta
what is economic
Emakpor Reply
what is economic
Cbdishakur
the word economic was derived from the Greek word oikos (a house)and mein(to manage) which in effect meant managing a household with the limited funds available 🙂.
Basanta
good excample about scarsity
hon
An Enquiry into the nature and causes of wealth Nations, this book clearly defined what economic is🙂🙂🙏🙏 thank you...
Basanta
good example about scarcity: money,time, energy, human or natural resources. Scarcity of resources implies that there supply is very much limited in relation to demand.
Basanta
equilibrium is a situation in which economic forces such as demand and supply are balanced and in the absence of external influences,the value of economic variables will not change
Onome Reply
hmnn
Emakpor
marginal cost and marginal revenue is equilibrium .
Kho
yessss
Basanta
what is equilibrium
Rodrice Reply
policy prescriptions for unemployment
Jeslyne Reply
Am working on it
Blacks
Study
Janelle
study
simeon
what are the factors effecting demand sedule
Kalimu Reply
we should talk about more important topics, you can search it on Google n u will find your answer we should try to focus on how we can improve our society using economics
shubham
so good night
hon
ways of improving human capital
kelly Reply
what is human capital
kelly
Capital can be defined as man made assets use in production .
Abdulai
What is the differences between central Bank And Commercial Bank ?. 2 for each
Abdulai
Two types of bank clearing house.
Abdulai
what are the most durable assets of a bank
Ngongang
What is Opportunity Cost?
Cephas Reply
may be defined as expression of cost in terms of forgone alternative.
Abdulai
Helloo, im new, can i get to know more?
Saniya Reply
You ask questions on any topics you find difficult.
Favour
What is opportunity cost?
Cephas
is price elasticity of demand the same as elasticity of demand
Favour Reply
not really
Victoria
hi
Gh
hello
Bhartendu
i hope everyone be ok
Gh
No
Hassan
please explain
Favour
No
William
explanations please
cleophas
price elasticity of demand is the reaction of customers /demand to price changes(increase or decrease) elasticity of demand is the reaction of prices brought about by the change in demand
Victoria
thank you
Favour
state the laws of demand and supply
William
dd: when price rises demand decreases whereas when price reduces dd rises ss: when ss rises the price rises and when ss decreases price also reduces. There is a positive relationship
Dhoonah
nice
Victoria
Draw a demand curve graph
William
though price elasticity and elasticity are used interchangeably, the demand can respond to income changes and prices of related goods as well.
Gurpalak
explain the difference between merit goods and public goods and show why it is possible for profit to be made in the supply of one of these types of good but not the other
Kavishek
Public goods are defined as products where, for any given output, consumption by additional consumers does not reduce the quantity consumed by existing consumers. Merit goods are, for example, education and to some extent the health-care. They are provided by state as "good for you".
ahmed
The ladies are doing much better than the men
Blacks
what happens when there is a shift in demand curve?
Favour
What is Specialization ? Explain in detail
Muhammad
any one ?
Muhammad
specialisation is a method of production whereby an entity focuses on the production of a limited scope of goods to gain a greater degree of efficiency.
Favour
It's ok
Muhammad
hello
Onome
yah
Abdulai
No. price elasticity of demand refers to the manna in which price of good demanded fluctuate mean while elasticity of demand explains the way consumer change in their willingness as they plan or purchase a good
Ngongang
diffirence between demand and supply
Bonny
what is economic
Seray Reply
It is a social science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce which have alternative uses
Obeng
what is norminal wage
Demba Reply
is the wages measured in money as distinct from actual purchasing power
Favour
what is demand curve
Azeez Reply
this is a curve that slop downward from left to rich
Obeng
yes
Basanta
different between capital and wealth
Samuel Reply
Wealth refers to the amount of asset you have, while, capital is the amount of cash money you have with you now and willing to invest in any business.
Favour
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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