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NOTE: Add Map 36: Division of Charlegmagne's Empire at Verdun in 843

Map taken from Reference 97.

As the old Frankish kingdom disintegrated in the early century, the separate duchies previously present reappeared as independent political units. These were the stem

From "Stamm", meaning "tribe"
duchies of Frisia (Lowlands), Saxony, Franconia (along the Maine), Swabia, Thuringia (between the Weser and Elbe) and Bavaria. These were based originally on ethnic unity and this particularism made unification of Germany forever difficult. (Ref. 184 )

In 857 there a serious outbreak of ergotism in which thousands of Germans died, poisoned by their daily rye bread which contained a fungus producing some 20 poisons (including LSD). The disease produced abdominal pain, delirium, gangrene and sometimes death, or alternately it caused an acute inflammation of the skin, driving people to insanity and giving it its common name of "Holy fire". (Ref. 211 ) The only physicians present were part of the monastic environment and much of their labor was devoted to prayer, laying on of hands, exorcising, use of amulets, holy oil, relics of saints and other elements of supernaturalism rather than to rational procedures. (Ref. 125 )

By treaty in 870 Germany was extended from the Rhine to the Elbe. The limits between the Germans and the Slavs generally followed the Elbe between the North Sea and the mountains of Bohemia. Although this line of demarcation did not last for long, it has through the centuries assumed some political, economic and social importance. As noted previously, to the west of the Elbe is old Germany, to the east is new Germany. The latter became the area of the Junkers, with large estates dominating a servile peasantry, with a large Slavic element in the population. A skeleton of imperial power continued even after Ludwig's death. The last of the direct Caroling ian line, Karl (Charles) the Fat, abdicated in 887. Three weak kings filled the next thirty year gap, until the rule was taken over in the next century by the Saxon kings.

Austria

Charlemagne's "Ostmark", bounded by the rivers Enns, Raab and Drau, with a fortress at Vienna, lasted until about 880, when the Frankish forces were defeated by the Magyars who had occupied Hungary and then moved into Austria. (Ref. 175 )

Hungary

In the early century Hungary was lightly held by the Bulgar Khanate, but near the end of the century when the Magyars were finally squeezed entirely out of Russia by the Patzinaks (Pechnegi), they swept through the upper Balkans and took over and settled Hungary. The "native" Szekels were few and scattered and offered little resistance. The Magyars were basically a Finnish people who had an infusion of Turkish blood which had been added while they were living on the Don River and were joined by three hordes of the Khazars from the Volga mouth. The Magyars were free horsemen, living in clans and tribes and using slaves taken from among the Slavs. They spoke the Ugric language of the Finno-Ugric group of Uralic languages. Formerly it was erroneously thought that these people were basically Mongolian or Hunnish, but this is not accurate and they came originally from the Ural Mountains area, not farther east. In Asia, they were called Ugri, from their Ugric language and from this has come our word "ogre". (Ref. 137 )

Questions & Answers

With the aid of diagrams,compare the short run equilibrium positions of a perfect competitor and an imperfect competitors
Monlay Reply
What is the term consultation in economics?
Nthabiseng Reply
why is it that the long run Average cost curve does not touch that of the short run curve at its minimum?
Baah Reply
In few words, what is the role of interest rate in economy?
Carlos Reply
what is population
Nyakeh Reply
total number of people in a given area or country
Clement
the total number of people at a given area or country
Clement
total number of people in a given area or country
okhiria
What is price Elasticity of demand?.
Samuel
The responsiveness of the quantity of a commodity demanded to a change in its price, expressed as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price.
EMMANUEL
why is it that the long run Average cost doesn't touch the short run cost curve at its minimum?
Baah
what is supply
Precious
please rice and beans will be what type of demand but note we mostly cook it together
Oladosu Reply
complementary or joint demand
Yillah
but did you know you can demand for rice without beans so how is it joint or complementary
Oladosu
From my point of view, rice and beans are replaceable goods, hence they can't be complementary.
Carlos
what are the money value
Wisdom Reply
Nothing more than a purchase power, in other words, $100 now, must have the same value after 1 year.
Carlos
what is Monopoly
Rebecca Reply
what is money
Lawal Reply
It can be define as a big transaction that can control any business for one place to another base.
Akinlo
money is recognisable note to accept both parties selling and buying
Hassan
i don still understan
Rene
hey
Abdul
hi
Rene
money is anything generally accepted as a medium of exchange
Awwal
Money is anything generally accepted as a medium of exchange and for the settlement of goods and services .
Korda
hi good ppl, pls help out
Tumi
discuss human and natural resources as develop strategies ro improving living condition of citizens in developing countries.
Tumi
I don't understand the question.
Naomi
it's a form of currency used for 2 or more individuals or parties in order to reach their amicable personal or business attainment. one must understand that money itself can manifest in multiple fashions for which the individuals or parties adheres.
are u trying to say we shld discuss ways in which human natural resources help in improving living condition of citizens in developing countries?
Naomi
money is a legal thunder generally accepted as a medium of exchange for the payment of debt ,goods and services
Naomi
money is a way of payment.
Carlos
money is any thing that is generally accepted as a medium of exchange good for good and settlement of debt and means of payment
Yillah
money is nothing but a object which is used for exchange of goods and services.
Harshita
money is anything that is generally accepted as payment of goods and services and settlement of debt
Rebecca
what is demand
Melissa Reply
demand is where the customer is willing and able to buy goods and services during a given period of time
idk
demand is the ability and willingness of an individual to buy goods and services at a given price in a particular period of time
Alpha
demand is the ability to buy a specific quantities of goods and services at a given price and at a specific period of time
rosemary
what are the rules of demand
rosemary
Rosemary Nsebon, Do you mean laws of demand?
Alpha
what are the rules of demand
Rene
the rule of demand is the higher the price the lower the quantity demanded and the lower the price the higher the quantity demanded
mbi
thank
Rene
what is unemployment
Rebecca
unemployment is a scenario or a phenomenon in an economy whereby people are willing are able to work but cannot a job
mbi
Suppose you have a team of two workers: one is a baker and one is a chef. Explain why the kitchen can produce more meals in a given period of time if each worker specializes in what they do best than if each worker tries to do everything from appetizer to dessert. please I need a urgent answer
Oladosu Reply
Enables individuals and countries to consume a variety of goods and services
Iddrisu
what is the meaning of competency
Oladosu Reply
competency is an ability and courage to do something perfectly
Abdullahi
ability to perform some task
Segun
rival
Ray
thanks 🙏 it is also the same with the core competency
Oladosu
A sufficient supply
Ebenezer
Ebenezer you mean the (core competency) right?
Oladosu
what is mean,median and mode
Ikeh Reply
mean is the average number of a given data
Gallant
median is the middle number of a given data
Gallant
in a given data sorry
Mitchel
hi
Sajib
Pls am new here
Physcal
what are development bank in Nigeria
Adedigba Reply
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Physcal
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Adedigba
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Physcal
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Rosie
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Rosie
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Mumtaz
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Mumtaz
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Charm
Payroll and​ 4p
Wasuroj
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Wasuroj
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Wasuroj
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Wasuroj
animal husbandry essay
Rakuane Reply
what's the primary location of capital and money market respectively
ALIMI
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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