<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

NOTE: Add Map 36: Division of Charlegmagne's Empire at Verdun in 843

Map taken from Reference 97.

As the old Frankish kingdom disintegrated in the early century, the separate duchies previously present reappeared as independent political units. These were the stem

From "Stamm", meaning "tribe"
duchies of Frisia (Lowlands), Saxony, Franconia (along the Maine), Swabia, Thuringia (between the Weser and Elbe) and Bavaria. These were based originally on ethnic unity and this particularism made unification of Germany forever difficult. (Ref. 184 )

In 857 there a serious outbreak of ergotism in which thousands of Germans died, poisoned by their daily rye bread which contained a fungus producing some 20 poisons (including LSD). The disease produced abdominal pain, delirium, gangrene and sometimes death, or alternately it caused an acute inflammation of the skin, driving people to insanity and giving it its common name of "Holy fire". (Ref. 211 ) The only physicians present were part of the monastic environment and much of their labor was devoted to prayer, laying on of hands, exorcising, use of amulets, holy oil, relics of saints and other elements of supernaturalism rather than to rational procedures. (Ref. 125 )

By treaty in 870 Germany was extended from the Rhine to the Elbe. The limits between the Germans and the Slavs generally followed the Elbe between the North Sea and the mountains of Bohemia. Although this line of demarcation did not last for long, it has through the centuries assumed some political, economic and social importance. As noted previously, to the west of the Elbe is old Germany, to the east is new Germany. The latter became the area of the Junkers, with large estates dominating a servile peasantry, with a large Slavic element in the population. A skeleton of imperial power continued even after Ludwig's death. The last of the direct Caroling ian line, Karl (Charles) the Fat, abdicated in 887. Three weak kings filled the next thirty year gap, until the rule was taken over in the next century by the Saxon kings.

Austria

Charlemagne's "Ostmark", bounded by the rivers Enns, Raab and Drau, with a fortress at Vienna, lasted until about 880, when the Frankish forces were defeated by the Magyars who had occupied Hungary and then moved into Austria. (Ref. 175 )

Hungary

In the early century Hungary was lightly held by the Bulgar Khanate, but near the end of the century when the Magyars were finally squeezed entirely out of Russia by the Patzinaks (Pechnegi), they swept through the upper Balkans and took over and settled Hungary. The "native" Szekels were few and scattered and offered little resistance. The Magyars were basically a Finnish people who had an infusion of Turkish blood which had been added while they were living on the Don River and were joined by three hordes of the Khazars from the Volga mouth. The Magyars were free horsemen, living in clans and tribes and using slaves taken from among the Slavs. They spoke the Ugric language of the Finno-Ugric group of Uralic languages. Formerly it was erroneously thought that these people were basically Mongolian or Hunnish, but this is not accurate and they came originally from the Ural Mountains area, not farther east. In Asia, they were called Ugri, from their Ugric language and from this has come our word "ogre". (Ref. 137 )

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask