<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

(Public Health See Science, September 2011). [MG to add]

There are very wide variations in public health indicators across emerging nations.

Consider infant mortality:

Number of Deaths per 1,000 Births 2009

1) Afghanistan 147.0
2) Chad 123.3
3) Congo-Kinshasa 109.0
4) India 95.0
5) Ghana 67.0
6) Tanzania 55.0

Infant mortality is higher in Afghanistan than India. Notably, there were no Latin American nations in this group.

Recognizing these important variations , we may consider some health indicators averaged across emerging nations.

Human capital formation in public health: bottom-up approaches

Every 4 minutes, over 50 children under age 5 dies.

In the same 4 minutes, 2 mothers lose their lives in childbirth.

Each year, 1.2 million people die of malaria, even though much malaria can be prevented by a mosquito net costing but $1.50.

See Eric Bing&Marc Epstein, (2013), Pharmacy on a Bicycle, San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Each year 3.5 million people die from cumulative effects of smoke from cooking fires. This problem has been particularly serious in the Peruvian Andes. The author has had first-hand experience with this problem where cooking fires have traditionally been inside houses.

Many deaths in emerging nations are not mainly due to medical problems that cannot be resolved. Rather, people are dying needlessly also because of continuing logistic and organizational problems, not medical problems. Even in India, 50% of households lack toilets.

Amartya Sen&Jean Drèze, (2013), An Uncertain Glory: India and Its’ Contradictions, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Top down approaches, directed and organized by central governments have largely failed to address logistical and organizational, as well as medical public health issues in poorer countries.

That being the case, there is a need to look to bottom-up approaches now in prevention and treatment of disease.

Most economics students by now have doubtless heard something of micro-finance, a topic covered in detail in Chapter ___. This has been truly a bottom-up approach, focused on lending to the poor in such countries as India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Peru and Mexico.

Micro finance has not been a cure-all, but it has quite clearly helped the rural poor in many countries, as we will see in Chapter___.

A comparable bottom-up approach in public health holds out much promise. Examples include:

  • Micro-clinics,
  • Micro-pharmacies, and
  • Micro-entrepreneurs.

These need to be located in rural communities, especially remote ones. A more focused “bottom-up” approach will require first a “scaling down” to local levels. Efforts to train and to provide incentives to all kinds of health care specialist need to be more focused in their own communities. Second this approach will necessitate the creation of large numbers of on-site professionals who can reduce the ravages of poor health, at a small fraction of the cost of top-down public health bureaucracies.

This model has worked fairly well in Asia, Africa and Latin America. A new book by Professor Marc Epstein and Eric Bing shows why and how.

Eric Bing&Marc Epstein, (2013), Pharmacy on a Bicycle: Innovative Solutions for Global Health and Poverty, San Francisco, CA:Berrett-Koehler Publishers

This volume shows, among other things, how when people are ill and cannot go out to a pharmacy, or a pharmacy is too far away, a local person with a bicycle can bring the pharmacy to them . In doing so, poor Villagers predisposed to heart disease or stroke can be protected by a small (81mg) dose of aspirin dispensed from a bicycle-enabled pharmacy. Deaths from cervical cancer could be reduced by one simple drop of vinegar applied to the cervix by a locally-based clinician looking for cancerous cells.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
what is hormones?
Wellington
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play




Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Economic development for the 21st century' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask