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(Public Health See Science, September 2011). [MG to add]

There are very wide variations in public health indicators across emerging nations.

Consider infant mortality:

Number of Deaths per 1,000 Births 2009

1) Afghanistan 147.0
2) Chad 123.3
3) Congo-Kinshasa 109.0
4) India 95.0
5) Ghana 67.0
6) Tanzania 55.0

Infant mortality is higher in Afghanistan than India. Notably, there were no Latin American nations in this group.

Recognizing these important variations , we may consider some health indicators averaged across emerging nations.

Human capital formation in public health: bottom-up approaches

Every 4 minutes, over 50 children under age 5 dies.

In the same 4 minutes, 2 mothers lose their lives in childbirth.

Each year, 1.2 million people die of malaria, even though much malaria can be prevented by a mosquito net costing but $1.50.

See Eric Bing&Marc Epstein, (2013), Pharmacy on a Bicycle, San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Each year 3.5 million people die from cumulative effects of smoke from cooking fires. This problem has been particularly serious in the Peruvian Andes. The author has had first-hand experience with this problem where cooking fires have traditionally been inside houses.

Many deaths in emerging nations are not mainly due to medical problems that cannot be resolved. Rather, people are dying needlessly also because of continuing logistic and organizational problems, not medical problems. Even in India, 50% of households lack toilets.

Amartya Sen&Jean Drèze, (2013), An Uncertain Glory: India and Its’ Contradictions, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Top down approaches, directed and organized by central governments have largely failed to address logistical and organizational, as well as medical public health issues in poorer countries.

That being the case, there is a need to look to bottom-up approaches now in prevention and treatment of disease.

Most economics students by now have doubtless heard something of micro-finance, a topic covered in detail in Chapter ___. This has been truly a bottom-up approach, focused on lending to the poor in such countries as India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Peru and Mexico.

Micro finance has not been a cure-all, but it has quite clearly helped the rural poor in many countries, as we will see in Chapter___.

A comparable bottom-up approach in public health holds out much promise. Examples include:

  • Micro-clinics,
  • Micro-pharmacies, and
  • Micro-entrepreneurs.

These need to be located in rural communities, especially remote ones. A more focused “bottom-up” approach will require first a “scaling down” to local levels. Efforts to train and to provide incentives to all kinds of health care specialist need to be more focused in their own communities. Second this approach will necessitate the creation of large numbers of on-site professionals who can reduce the ravages of poor health, at a small fraction of the cost of top-down public health bureaucracies.

This model has worked fairly well in Asia, Africa and Latin America. A new book by Professor Marc Epstein and Eric Bing shows why and how.

Eric Bing&Marc Epstein, (2013), Pharmacy on a Bicycle: Innovative Solutions for Global Health and Poverty, San Francisco, CA:Berrett-Koehler Publishers

This volume shows, among other things, how when people are ill and cannot go out to a pharmacy, or a pharmacy is too far away, a local person with a bicycle can bring the pharmacy to them . In doing so, poor Villagers predisposed to heart disease or stroke can be protected by a small (81mg) dose of aspirin dispensed from a bicycle-enabled pharmacy. Deaths from cervical cancer could be reduced by one simple drop of vinegar applied to the cervix by a locally-based clinician looking for cancerous cells.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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