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  • Explain the working principle of a Geiger tube.
  • Define and discuss radiation detectors.

It is well known that ionizing radiation affects us but does not trigger nerve impulses. Newspapers carry stories about unsuspecting victims of radiation poisoning who fall ill with radiation sickness, such as burns and blood count changes, but who never felt the radiation directly. This makes the detection of radiation by instruments more than an important research tool. This section is a brief overview of radiation detection and some of its applications.

Human application

The first direct detection of radiation was Becquerel’s fogged photographic plate. Photographic film is still the most common detector of ionizing radiation, being used routinely in medical and dental x rays. Nuclear radiation is also captured on film, such as seen in [link] . The mechanism for film exposure by ionizing radiation is similar to that by photons. A quantum of energy interacts with the emulsion and alters it chemically, thus exposing the film. The quantum come from an α size 12{α} {} -particle, β size 12{β} {} -particle, or photon, provided it has more than the few eV of energy needed to induce the chemical change (as does all ionizing radiation). The process is not 100% efficient, since not all incident radiation interacts and not all interactions produce the chemical change. The amount of film darkening is related to exposure, but the darkening also depends on the type of radiation, so that absorbers and other devices must be used to obtain energy, charge, and particle-identification information.

Image shows fingers holding a black strip of film on a radioactive rock.
Film badges contain film similar to that used in this dental x-ray film and is sandwiched between various absorbers to determine the penetrating ability of the radiation as well as the amount. (credit: Werneuchen, Wikimedia Commons)

Another very common radiation detector    is the Geiger tube    . The clicking and buzzing sound we hear in dramatizations and documentaries, as well as in our own physics labs, is usually an audio output of events detected by a Geiger counter. These relatively inexpensive radiation detectors are based on the simple and sturdy Geiger tube, shown schematically in [link] (b). A conducting cylinder with a wire along its axis is filled with an insulating gas so that a voltage applied between the cylinder and wire produces almost no current. Ionizing radiation passing through the tube produces free ion pairs that are attracted to the wire and cylinder, forming a current that is detected as a count. The word count implies that there is no information on energy, charge, or type of radiation with a simple Geiger counter. They do not detect every particle, since some radiation can pass through without producing enough ionization to be detected. However, Geiger counters are very useful in producing a prompt output that reveals the existence and relative intensity of ionizing radiation.

Image of Geiger counter and its working principle is shown. A small detector with handle is attached to a voltage dial indicator. Voltage applied between the cylinder and wire in a Geiger tube causes ions and electrons produced by incoming radiation passing through the gas-filled cylinder to move towards them.
(a) Geiger counters such as this one are used for prompt monitoring of radiation levels, generally giving only relative intensity and not identifying the type or energy of the radiation. (credit: TimVickers, Wikimedia Commons) (b) Voltage applied between the cylinder and wire in a Geiger tube causes ions and electrons produced by radiation passing through the gas-filled cylinder to move towards them. The resulting current is detected and registered as a count.

Questions & Answers

why no diagrams
Blessing Reply
where
Fayyaz
Myanmar
Pyae
Describe an experiment to determine short half life
Tyson Reply
what is science
Kenedy Reply
A 20MH coil has a resistance of 50 ohms and us connected in series with a capacitor to a 520MV supply
Musa Reply
what is physics
Caya Reply
it is the science which we used in our daily life
Sujitha
Physics is the branch of science that deals with the study of matter and the interactions it undergoes with energy
Junior
it is branch of science which deals with study of happening in the human life
AMIT
it is when you get up of your arse and do some real work 😁
A 20MH coil has a resistance of 50 ohms and is connected in series with a capacitor to a 250MV supply if the circuit is to resonate at 100KHZ, Determine 1: the capacitance of the capacitor 2: the working voltage of the circuit, given that pie =3.142
Musa
Physics is the branch of science that deals with the study of matter and the interactions it undergoes with energy
Kelly
Heat is transfered by thermal contact but if it is transfered by conduction or radiation, is it possible to reach in thermal equilibrium?
Eden Reply
Yes, It is possible by conduction if Surface is Adiabatic
Astronomy
Yeah true ilwith d help of Adiabatic
Kelly
what are the fundamentals qualities
Magret Reply
what is physic3
Kalilu
what is physic
Kalilu
Physics? Is a branch of science dealing with matter in relation to energy.
Moses
Physic... Is a purging medicine, which stimulates evacuation of the bowels.
Moses
are you asking for qualities or quantities?
Noman
give examples of three dimensional frame of reference
Ekwunazor Reply
your fat arse sitting all day is a good reference of three dimensional numbnut
Universe
Noman
Yes the Universe itself
Astronomy
Examine different types of shoes, including sports shoes and thongs. In terms of physics, why are the bottom surfaces designed as they are? What differences will dry and wet conditions make for these surfaces?
Lathan Reply
sports shoes are designed in such a way they are gripped well with your feet and their bases have and high friction surfaces, Thong shoes are for comfort, these are easily removed and light weight. these are usually low friction surfaces but in wet conditions they offer greater friction.
Noman
thong sleepers are usually used in restrooms.
Noman
what is wave
Ochigbo Reply
The phenomenon of transfer of energy
Noman
how does time flow in one dimension
Lord Reply
you mean in three dimensions......numbnut
yeah that was a mistake
Lord
if it flows in three dimensions does it mean if an object theoretically moves beyond the speed of light it won't experience time
Lord
time seems to flow in one direction...but I the past present and future happen every moment time flies regardless.
but if an object moves beyond the speed of light time stops right for it
Lord
yes but at light speed it ceases
Lord
yes it always flow from past to future.
Noman
if v=ktx Ly Mz find the value of x,y and z
Emmanuel Reply
x=v=ktx Ly Mz find the value of x,y and z
y=v=ktx Ly Mz find the value of x,y and z
z=v=ktx Ly Mz find the value of x,y and z
now get your lazy arse up and clean the kitchen 😁
I want to join the conversation
Subaba Reply
😂
hmm
Stephen
what conversation you talking about? .....numbnut
how do i calculate for period of the oscillation
Bridget Reply
T=2π√(m÷k).K is spring constance
Ambe
T=2π√m/k
Lord
does the force in a system result in the energy transfer?
Lebatam Reply
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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