# 11.3 The expenditure-output (or keynesian cross) model  (Page 10/41)

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The inflationary gap should be interpreted, not as a literal prediction of how large real GDP will be, but as a statement of how much extra aggregate expenditure is in the economy beyond what is needed to reach potential GDP. An inflationary gap suggests that because the economy cannot produce enough goods and services to absorb this level of aggregate expenditures, the spending will instead cause an inflationary increase in the price level. In this way, even though changes in the price level do not appear explicitly in the Keynesian cross equation, the notion of inflation is implicit in the concept of the inflationary gap.

The appropriate Keynesian response to an inflationary gap is shown in [link] (b). The original intersection of aggregate expenditure line AE 0 and the 45-degree line occurs at \$8,000, which is above the level of potential GDP at \$7,000. If AE 0 shifts down to AE 1 , so that the new equilibrium is at E 1 , then the economy will be at potential GDP without pressures for inflationary price increases. The government can achieve a downward shift in aggregate expenditure by increasing taxes on consumers or firms, or by reducing government expenditures.

## The multiplier effect

The Keynesian policy prescription has one final twist. Assume that for a certain economy, the intersection of the aggregate expenditure function and the 45-degree line is at a GDP of 700, while the level of potential GDP for this economy is \$800. By how much does government spending need to be increased so that the economy reaches the full employment GDP? The obvious answer might seem to be \$800 – \$700 = \$100; so raise government spending by \$100. But that answer is incorrect. A change of, for example, \$100 in government expenditures will have an effect of more than \$100 on the equilibrium level of real GDP. The reason is that a change in aggregate expenditures circles through the economy: households buy from firms, firms pay workers and suppliers, workers and suppliers buy goods from other firms, those firms pay their workers and suppliers, and so on. In this way, the original change in aggregate expenditures is actually spent more than once. This is called the multiplier effect: An initial increase in spending, cycles repeatedly through the economy and has a larger impact than the initial dollar amount spent.

## How does the multiplier work?

To understand how the multiplier effect works, return to the example in which the current equilibrium in the Keynesian cross diagram is a real GDP of \$700, or \$100 short of the \$800 needed to be at full employment, potential GDP. If the government spends \$100 to close this gap, someone in the economy receives that spending and can treat it as income. Assume that those who receive this income pay 30% in taxes, save 10% of after-tax income, spend 10% of total income on imports, and then spend the rest on domestically produced goods and services.

As shown in the calculations in [link] and [link] , out of the original \$100 in government spending, \$53 is left to spend on domestically produced goods and services. That \$53 which was spent, becomes income to someone, somewhere in the economy. Those who receive that income also pay 30% in taxes, save 10% of after-tax income, and spend 10% of total income on imports, as shown in [link] , so that an additional \$28.09 (that is, 0.53 × \$53) is spent in the third round. The people who receive that income then pay taxes, save, and buy imports, and the amount spent in the fourth round is \$14.89 (that is, 0.53 × \$28.09).

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Equilibrium price is a stable price and it must stay.discuss
Card 14 / 21: What are the similarities between a consumer’s budget constraint and society’s production possibilities frontier, not just graphically but analytically?