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An earlier module titled Getting Started provided information on howto get started programming with Microsoft's XNA Game Studio.

The three main characteristics of an object-oriented program

Object-oriented programs exhibit three main characteristics:

  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism

In this and the next two modules, I will explain and illustrate those three characteristics plus some related topics.

Viewing tip

I recommend that you open another copy of this module in a separate browser window and use the following links to easily find and view the Figuresand Listings while you are reading about them.


  • Figure 1 . Output from the program named Props01.


  • Listing 1 . Beginning of the class named Props01.
  • Listing 2 . Beginning of the class named TargetClass.
  • Listing 3 . Call the object's public accessor methods.
  • Listing 4 . Definition of setColor and getColor methods in TargetClass.
  • Listing 5 . Set, get, and display a property value with a valid value.
  • Listing 6 . The set Accessor and get Accessor methods for the property named height.
  • Listing 7 . Call manipulator method and display results.
  • Listing 8 . A simple manipulator method named doubleHeight.
  • Listing 9 . Set and get the property named height with an invalid value.
  • Listing 10 . Pause until the user presses any key.
  • Listing 11 . The program named Props01.

General background information

In addition to the three explicit characteristics of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism, an object-oriented program also has an implicitcharacteristic of abstraction .


Abstraction is the process by which we specify a new data type, often referred to as an abstract data type or ADT. This includes a specification ofthe type's data representation and its behavior. In particular,

  • What kind of data can be stored in an entity of the new type?
  • What are all the ways that the data can be manipulated?

How does abstraction relate to encapsulation?

Encapsulation is the process of gathering an ADT's data representation and behavior into one encapsulated entity. In other words, encapsulation convertsfrom the abstract to the concrete .

Some analogies

You might think of this as being similar to converting an idea for an invention into a set of blueprints from which it can be built, or converting aset of written specifications for a widget into a set of drawings that can be used by the machine shop to build the widget.

Automotive engineers encapsulated the specifications for the steering mechanism of my car into a set of manufacturing drawings. Then manufacturingpersonnel used those drawings to produce an object where they exposed the interface (steering wheel) and hid the implementation (levers, bolts, etc.).

In all likelihood, the steering mechanism contains a number of other more-specialized embedded objects, each of which has state and behavior and eachof which also has an interface and an implementation.

The interfaces for those embedded objects aren't exposed to me, but they are exposed to the other parts of the steering mechanism that use them.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Xna game studio. OpenStax CNX. Feb 28, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11634/1.6
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