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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Explain how imports influence aggregate demand
  • Identify ways in which business confidence and consumer confidence can affect aggregate demand
  • Explain how government policy can change aggregate demand
  • Evaluate why economists disagree on the topic of tax cuts

As mentioned previously, the components of aggregate demand are consumption spending (C), investment spending (I), government spending (G), and spending on exports (X) minus imports (M). (Read the following Clear It Up feature for explanation of why imports are subtracted from exports and what this means for aggregate demand.) A shift of the AD curve to the right means that at least one of these components increased so that a greater amount of total spending would occur at every price level. A shift of the AD curve to the left means that at least one of these components decreased so that a lesser amount of total spending would occur at every price level. The Keynesian Perspective will discuss the components of aggregate demand and the factors that affect them. Here, the discussion will sketch two broad categories that could cause AD curves to shift: changes in the behavior of consumers or firms and changes in government tax or spending policy.

Do imports diminish aggregate demand?

We have seen that the formula for aggregate demand is AD = C + I + G + X - M, where M is the total value of imported goods. Why is there a minus sign in front of imports? Does this mean that more imports will result in a lower level of aggregate demand?

When an American buys a foreign product, for example, it gets counted along with all the other consumption. So the income generated does not go to American producers, but rather to producers in another country; it would be wrong to count this as part of domestic demand. Therefore, imports added in consumption are subtracted back out in the M term of the equation.

Because of the way in which the demand equation is written, it is easy to make the mistake of thinking that imports are bad for the economy. Just keep in mind that every negative number in the M term has a corresponding positive number in the C or I or G term, and they always cancel out.

How changes by consumers and firms can affect ad

When consumers feel more confident about the future of the economy, they tend to consume more. If business confidence is high, then firms tend to spend more on investment, believing that the future payoff from that investment will be substantial. Conversely, if consumer or business confidence drops, then consumption and investment spending decline.

The University of Michigan publishes a survey of consumer confidence and constructs an index of consumer confidence each month. The survey results are then reported at (External Link) , which break down the change in consumer confidence among different income levels. According to that index, consumer confidence averaged around 90 prior to the Great Recession, and then it fell to below 60 in late 2008, which was the lowest it had been since 1980. Since then, confidence has climbed from a 2011 low of 55.8 back to a level in the low 80s, which is considered close to being considered a healthy state.

Questions & Answers

What will be the multiplier, when MPS is 0, 0.4, 0.6, and 1? What will it be when the MPC is 1, 0.90, 0.67, 0.50, and 0? How much of a change in GDP will result if firms increase their level of investment by $8 billion and the MPC is 0.80? And If the MPC is 0.67?
Ayesha Reply
what are the side effects of government policies
narayan Reply
Government policy can influence interest rates, a rise in which increases the cost of borrowing in the business community. Higher rates also lead to decreased consumer spending. Lower interest rates attract investment as businesses increase production.
REHMA
if there is a negative technology shock to the economy in short run the firms production cost will go up and labor goes down and thus consumption and production will be lower than before. the government can spend to create jobs and central Bank can lower the interest rates
Dine
what are marlet prices
Jaheim Reply
price which includes net indirect taxes
Anish
what is aggregate demand
Kalkidan Reply
what is micro economics
A-dip Reply
microscopic study...
REHMA
microeconomics is study of individual, household and firms of division making and allocation of resources.
himanshi
absolutely
Shahzaib
😄😂😅
Thi
Join me in Vietnam
Thi
cũygi👅
Thi
what a pure economics. must have downloaded by mistake.
Zaiveisho
microeconomics is the study of an individual unit in an economic system or an household
DAMIAN
what really cause inflation?
Urey Reply
what is trade deficit
vivek Reply
is ther forgon alternative. is the amount sacrifice of one thing to gain another thing
Alie
what is enflation rate?
Mohibullah Reply
Is it inflation rate sir
Bilal
yes
Mohibullah
This is the annual rate of increase of basic household goods and services and measures also the cost of living and doing business in a country. it's a important information when making for forecast or business plans.
this is continuous increase of overall price level
Bethwel
the betewen microeconomics and macroeconomics is microeconomics is concerned with individual scarcity like household,workers and so on while macroeconomics is focuced on the problème winth organisation the collaboration with others companies the profits and then the growth of the organisation
Amadou Reply
what is tax base
ekwuye Reply
The tax base is the total amount of income, property, assets, consumption, transactions, or other economic activity subject to taxation by a tax authority.
Mare
what is economic system
Alinda Reply
Quantity of Gasoline in millions was?
Touseef Reply
1000cubic meter
Keyrene
definition of phillips curve
Alok Reply
what is closed economy
Nati Reply
an economy that is not open
Chris
meaning: The economy is a closed system, there is not trade between this economy and another one, so no shared market. just a system with no outside influences.
Chris
thanks
Nati
what are the decision-making unit of an economy..?
Nati
an economy which is not involved in exchange with foreign countries
Manjisha
what is the demand curve
Cabdiqani Reply
it is the graph of aggregate demand in a market
Chris
the demand curve is a graph showing the quantity demand and price and the numbers and numbers of units at various quantity demanded
Paitience
' it is a diagram with two axes one represent price, the other represents quantity demanded. the curve slops downwords from left to right interpreting the Law of demand (reversed proportion between price and demand ) The higher the price the lower the demand..
Isameldin
What is DMU and how affects demand?
Isameldin

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Source:  OpenStax, Macroeconomics. OpenStax CNX. Jun 16, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11626/1.10
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