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With the advent of nanotechnology, these transistors are becoming even faster and more powerful, and inaccordance with the law of accelerating returns, the industry has been producing smaller transistors at lower costs with each andevery passing year. As these semiconductors become smaller and smaller, they are quickly and surely pushing towards the limits ofthe nano-realm.

These innovations, however, do not come without their fair share of challenges. Physical issues that arenot problematic at the micron scale arise at the nano-scale due to the emergence of quantum effects, and in much the same way thatoptical microscopy cannot be utilized at the nano-scale, the semiconductor industry is fast approaching a similar diffractionlimit. Optical lithography, for instance, a process that uses theproperties of light to etch transistors onto wafers of silicon, will soon reach its limit.

At its most basic level, nanotechnology involves pushing individual atoms together one by one. Sinceapproximately 1.7 billion transistors are required for a single chip, this is obviously not a realistic method for mass production.Unless an alternative method for production or a solution to this problem is found, the development and manufacturing of transistorsare expected to hit a proverbial brick wall by the year 2015. This is the reason that research in nanotechnology is so important forthe world and future of semiconductors.

How are semiconductors manufactured?

Today’s semiconductors are usually composed of silicon, and they are manufactured in a procedure that combinesthe familiar with the bizarre; some steps that are involved in the process are as everyday as developing a roll of photographic filmwhile others seem as if they would be better suited to take place on a spaceship.

These semiconductors appear to the naked eye as being small and flat, but they are actually three-dimensional“sandwiches” that are ten to twenty layers thick. It can take more than two dozen steps and up to two full months to produce a singleone of these silicon sandwiches. Some of the basic and more essential steps involved in the manufacturing process of siliconchips are briefly detailed below.

First, silicon crystals are melted in a vat and purified to 99.9999% purity. The molten silicon is drawn intolong, heavy, cylindrical ingots, which are then cut into thin slices called wafersabout the thickness of a business card.

One side of each wafer must be polished absolutely smooth. This process is called chemical-mechanicalpolishing, and it involves bathing the wafers in special abrasive chemicals. After chemical-mechanical polishing, imperfectionscannot be detected on the wafers even with the aid of a laboratory microscope.

After a wafer is polished, layers of material must be stacked on top of the silicon wafer base. Insulating layersare laid down in alternation with conducting layers in a process called deposition. This is often achieved by spraying the chemicalsdirectly onto the surface of the wafer through chemical vapor deposition. Following deposition, the wafer is coated with anotherlayer of chemicals called a photoresist that is sensitive to light.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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