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Sex differences in conditioned taste aversion:

In conditioned taste aversion, animals are fed a novel sweet solution which either contains an aversive compound which makes the animal ill or an aversive compound is administered immediately after the animal consumes the solution. Eventually, animals learn to associate the solution with illness and avoid it (Dalla, 2009).

Randall-Thomson (2003) performed conditioned taste aversion on rats using morphine and lithium chloride (LiCl) as the aversive compound. Each day, liquid-deprived subjects were given a 20 minute access period to a saccharine solution and every four days were injected with either morphine or LiCl, for a total of four trials (16 days). Acquisition of the aversive behavior did not differ by sex, and both males and females typically learned to avoid the solution by the fifth day. Memory extinction rates were then measured for this learned behavior. Although the rates did not differ between males and females for morphine, the female LiCl-induced rats went back to the saccharin solution sooner than males. This suggests that females forget learned taste aversion before males (Randall-Thompson, 2003).

Male Rats Perform Better: Female Rats Perform Better:
In the Classic Fear-Conditioning Paradigm During Classic Eyeblink Conditioning(in both trace and delay conditioning)
In certain lever-pressing paradigms (positive stimuli operant conditioning) In fear-potentiated startle
In Conditioned Taste Aversion On most operant conditioning tasks (including Active Avoidance)
On Spatial Learning Tasks (MWM) In Spatial Memory Tasks

Hormonal differences

Although the non-reproductive effects of gonadal hormones have been given significantly less attention than the reproductive effects, the magnitude of sex-differences in some learned responses seems to be heavily influenced by sex hormones. It appears that testosterone, typically present in higher levels in males, has little effect on sex-differences. Estrogen, a typically feminine hormone, does play some role. For example, the difference in performance between male and females in CEC is greater when females begin training in proestrus , when estrogen levels are high (Dalla, 2009).

In both CEC and fear conditioning, although castration of adult male rats does not alter the conditioned response, removing the ovaries of adult females did. Research suggests that removal of the ovarian tubes, and thus of female-specific hormones, can reduce the learning bias, causing ovariectomized females to perform at the same level as males (Gupta, 2000, Wood, 1998). The differences could not be re-established by administering normal doses of estrogen to females who had the ovaries removed, although very high doses did increase performance (Gupta, 2000, Leuner, 2004). However, some studies show that removal of the ovaries in females and castration in males has no effect on the learning differences (Dalla, 2008). It is only fair to note that it is highly unlikely that there can be a total dependence of basic learning processes on one or even a few hormones. The adaptive value of learning is too great. Because males and females of all species undergo drastic changes in sex hormone availability throughout their lifetime, learning cannot be exclusively influenced by hormone levels.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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