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Sex differences in conditioned taste aversion:

In conditioned taste aversion, animals are fed a novel sweet solution which either contains an aversive compound which makes the animal ill or an aversive compound is administered immediately after the animal consumes the solution. Eventually, animals learn to associate the solution with illness and avoid it (Dalla, 2009).

Randall-Thomson (2003) performed conditioned taste aversion on rats using morphine and lithium chloride (LiCl) as the aversive compound. Each day, liquid-deprived subjects were given a 20 minute access period to a saccharine solution and every four days were injected with either morphine or LiCl, for a total of four trials (16 days). Acquisition of the aversive behavior did not differ by sex, and both males and females typically learned to avoid the solution by the fifth day. Memory extinction rates were then measured for this learned behavior. Although the rates did not differ between males and females for morphine, the female LiCl-induced rats went back to the saccharin solution sooner than males. This suggests that females forget learned taste aversion before males (Randall-Thompson, 2003).

Male Rats Perform Better: Female Rats Perform Better:
In the Classic Fear-Conditioning Paradigm During Classic Eyeblink Conditioning(in both trace and delay conditioning)
In certain lever-pressing paradigms (positive stimuli operant conditioning) In fear-potentiated startle
In Conditioned Taste Aversion On most operant conditioning tasks (including Active Avoidance)
On Spatial Learning Tasks (MWM) In Spatial Memory Tasks

Hormonal differences

Although the non-reproductive effects of gonadal hormones have been given significantly less attention than the reproductive effects, the magnitude of sex-differences in some learned responses seems to be heavily influenced by sex hormones. It appears that testosterone, typically present in higher levels in males, has little effect on sex-differences. Estrogen, a typically feminine hormone, does play some role. For example, the difference in performance between male and females in CEC is greater when females begin training in proestrus , when estrogen levels are high (Dalla, 2009).

In both CEC and fear conditioning, although castration of adult male rats does not alter the conditioned response, removing the ovaries of adult females did. Research suggests that removal of the ovarian tubes, and thus of female-specific hormones, can reduce the learning bias, causing ovariectomized females to perform at the same level as males (Gupta, 2000, Wood, 1998). The differences could not be re-established by administering normal doses of estrogen to females who had the ovaries removed, although very high doses did increase performance (Gupta, 2000, Leuner, 2004). However, some studies show that removal of the ovaries in females and castration in males has no effect on the learning differences (Dalla, 2008). It is only fair to note that it is highly unlikely that there can be a total dependence of basic learning processes on one or even a few hormones. The adaptive value of learning is too great. Because males and females of all species undergo drastic changes in sex hormone availability throughout their lifetime, learning cannot be exclusively influenced by hormone levels.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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