<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Unlike radio, television is less successful in presenting straight music, but does well where there is a spectacle involved, as in opera and ballet. Other forms of stage shows also translate well into this medium, such as variety and music shows.

With most forms of sport, television succeeds in giving the viewer a seat at the event. With news and its background, television has borrowed the techniques of news-papers and translated them into sound and visual terms.

Colour, first demonstrated in 1928 by John Logie Baird, started coming into general use for television in the 1950’s.

The soap opera

The best known of all programmes is, undoubtedly, the serialised drama, often called a ‘soap opera’, so-called because in the early days many had a soap company as their sponsor.

The story lines and dialogue are simple. The characters are larger than life. The situations are credulous and sometimes far removed from real life, but it provides the audience with escapism and entertainment.

Tricks of the trade

A television performer can appear against a background apparently far from the studio. Originally this was done by back-projection – throwing film of the background on to a transparent screen behind the performer – but this effect can now be produced electronically by a process known as ‘Inlay’. A simpler device is superimposition, in which an image from one camera appears on top of the image from another.

In a sense the majority of television pictures are special effects, because the action takes place on a set in which scenery is used to create an apparent real situation. But as in theatre, the audience is really looking at a room with one wall missing.

Homework for the educator

Tape an episode of any soapie – any episode will do for our exercise

Watch the episode for a second time and make notes on the following:

the different characters and into which categories they fall, e.g. protagonists (the good guys) and the antagonists (the bad guys);

the purpose of each character in the series (is he/she a main character; supporting player; why is (s)he in the episode; what is he doing in order to develop the story or plot);

the different story lines of this specific episode;

the mood of each story line;

special effects ( lighting, explosions, sound, etc.);

the different locations the action took place;

the effective use of close-ups, wide shots, two-shots, etc.;



dynamic use of movement, stillness, sound, silence, light, darkness.


Show the learners the episode

Write aspects you want them to focus on while watching the episode on the board.

Show them the video again.

Class discussion

Discuss the following:

  • Focus: knowing wht the episode is about and how to transmit this meaning more effectively to the audience.
  • Tension: the “pressure” for response; this can take the form of a conflict, a challenge, a surprise, a time restraint or the suspense of not knowing. Tension is what works in a drama to assure the audience’s desire to know what will happen next.
  • Contrasts: Dynamic use of movement, stillness, sound, silence and light nd darkness.

Have the learners consider the following:

  • how were these elements organised in the episode?
  • how did these elements function to connect each of the scenes?
  • how the artistic intention of each actor is served by the use of these elements?

Have them make connections between their own dramas and the episode they have just seen.

Have them compare this soap opera to actual theatre:

  • difference in acting style;
  • plot complications;
  • dialogue delivery;
  • décor;
  • scene changes.


Volunteer a small group of learners to discuss and reach a consensus as to the focus (the key moment) of the episode.

Repeat with a different group of learners.

Ask them to choose a moment in the episode which they feel clearly communicated that focus.

Ask them to re-create that moment.

Have them present the scene to the rest of the class.

Repeat with a different group of learners.

Conduct a discussion exploring the following:

  • the various interpretations of the scene;
  • aspects of their own interpretation and their understanding of the episode;
  • the complex processes involved in creating a scene;
  • how what they saw relates to real life.


Have the learners complete the questionnaire after the class discussion.

Helpful Hints :

encourage participation;

select learners for responses;

be positive throughout;

be constructive in your response to the learners’ comments;

show the video as many times as you think necessary;

prepare the learners beforehand for the activities in order for them to anticipate the experience;

encourage some preliminary reflection and when the learners’ appetites for the activity and provide them with some valuable ‘hooks’, but do not spoil any of the surprises which the episode might hold in store for them;

since they are seeking to clarify and share their understanding of this aspect of dramatic work, it makes good sense to use drama strategies to aid them in exploring, expressing and sharing their different ideas – like the ‘Practical” exercise and questionnaire for example.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Arts and culture grade 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10977/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Arts and culture grade 5' conversation and receive update notifications?