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Sosiale wetenskappe: geskiedenis

Graad 6

Ontwikkeling van die mediese wetenskap

Module 3

Pasteur en lister oorwin kieme

Virusse, kieme en bakterieë is onsigbaar en is oral in die lug om ons teenwoordig. Wetenskaplikes sê dat virusse miljoen keer kleiner is as 'n millimeter. Ons asem elke dag baie virusse in, maar gelukkig word ons nie altyd siek nie. (Ek wonder wat 'n rekenaarvirus is?)

Die persoon wat uitgevind het hoe siektes werklik veroorsaak word, is Louis Pasteur. Hy het vasgestel dat die lug om ons vol kieme is, kieme wat so klein is dat dit net met 'n sterk mikroskoop sigbaar is. Hierdie kieme veroorsaak dat, onder meer, kos en melk gou sleg word as dit nie op die regte manier bewaar word nie.

Die ontdekking van die proses wat Pasteur beroemd gemaak het, dra ook sy naam: pasteurisasie. Hy het bewys dat voedsel lank bewaar kan word as dit kiemvry is. Hy het gevind dat as melk verhit word tot onderkant kookpunt en weer dadelik afgekoel word, die kieme of bakterieë daarin doodgaan. Hierdie proses word pasteurisasie genoem en word vandag in melkerye gebruik.

Hierdie ontdekking het gemaak dat feitlik alle kossoorte, bv. vleis, vis, groente en vrugte kiemvry in houers of blikkies ingemaak kan word. Die voedsel word in die blik gekook totdat dit kiemvry is en dan verseël. Hierdie voedsel kan lank veilig bewaar word.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Hoe om bronne te bekom en te gebruik

[lu 1.2, 2.1]

KLASGESPREK

a) Gebruik meegaande vrae om die gesprek te begin. Daarna kan jul jul eie vrae vra!

  • Watter melk is die veiligste om te drink: die melk in ‘n houer in die kafee, of die heerlike vars melk wat op ‘n plaas gekoop word en direk van die koeie kom? Hoekom?
  • Sê hoe jul melk kiemvry kan maak.
  • Soek vyf voedselitems in jul huis en kyk op die etikette of dit gepasteuriseer is.
  • Hoekom hou blikkieskos lank?

b) Navorsing

Die entstof teen die gevreesde hondsdolheid is seker een van Pasteur se belangrikste ontdekkings. Hy kon nie die oorsaak van die siekte vasstel nie, want die virus was te klein om met sy mikroskoop waar te neem. Hy het egter entstof uit die rugmurg van besmette hase gemaak om mense te behandel wat deur dol honde gebyt is. Die entstof het hy op 6 Julie 1885 op ‘n negejarige seun, Joseph Meister, wat drie dae tevore deur ‘n dol hond gebyt is, gebruik. Die seun het gesond geword en die entstof was ‘n groot sukses. Verder moet jy self in ‘n boek gaan naslaan wat gebeur het …

Verskaf die spesifieke woord(e) wat jou gehelp het om die res van bg. inligting te bekom in die:

  • Inhoudsopgawe
  • Indeks

Aktiwiteit 2:

Om te verstaan dat verskillende sieninge oor pasteur reg of verkeerd kan wees

[lu 2.1]

Louis Pasteur wil graag hierdie entstof teen hondsdolheid vir die eerste keer op ‘n mens toets.

  • Verduidelik namens hom wat die moontlikhede kan wees indien die eksperiment slaag.
  • Wat gaan sy alternatiewe wees as dit misluk?
  • Watter keuse het Pasteur gemaak?
  • Wat sou jy gedoen het? Hoekom?

Hou ‘n klasgesprek oor die volgende en voltooi dan die opdragte.

  • Watter lewensles wil hy vir ons leer?
  • Noem vier mooi eienskappe van Pasteur.
  • Jy word gevra om ‘n inskripsie op ‘n gedenksteen wat vir Louis Pasteur opgerig gaan word, te skryf. Skryf dit in die raam hieronder.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geskiedenis graad 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11008/1.1
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