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History

Grade 4

How transport has served mankind

Module 9

A brief history of sea transportation

Ships from Europe have sailed round the southern tip of Africa since before 1500 – do you remember Diaz and Da Gama?

In 1652 people from the Netherlands under the leadership of Jan van Riebeeck founded a victualling station at the Cape. Dutch sailing ships had large sails that could make excellent use of wind for sailing.

Much development has taken place since that time. Nowadays most large ships are moved by means of powerful engines.

Activity 1

To find the differences between the past and the present [lo 2.3]

A)can you indicate five items that do not match the period shown in the previous sketch by marking them?

B)are you able to identify the following ships?

Steamship ………………………………Fishing boat …………………………….Passenger ship ……………………….Cargo boat ……………………………. Tugboat ………………………………….Yacht …………………………………….Oil tanker…………………………………

C)the cape sea route became more and more important after 1652. why was this?

Ocean routes of the world(The thickness of any line corresponds to the tonnage that is transported.)

D)read the wonderful story of a famous sea adventurer.

Refer to an atlas and ask your educator to help you trace Thor Heyerdahl's voyages.

Write a letter to a friend telling him or her about the adventures of any other famous pioneer – male or female – that navigated the seas. What can you learn from this person?

Thor heyerdahl

The Norwegian scientist and adventurer Thor Heyerdahl was born in Larvik, Norway, on 6 October 1914. He became famous because he undertook a successful sea voyage on a raft, the Kon-Tiki, which made of balsa wood. (This is a strong but very light kind of wood.) He and his five crewmembers undertook this voyage in 1947 and crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Peru to Polynesia in 97 days. The Polynesian islands are approximately 2 000 km from Peru and lie to the north of New Zeeland. The raft was built like those of the ancient Incas and was named after the Polynesian god Tiki . Heyerdahl wanted to prove that the original inhabitants of Polynesia had come from Peru in South America – not from Asia. He believed that they had been able to undertake such long sea voyages.

The course of his successful voyage was described in his book Kon-Tiki , of which more than 20 million copies have been sold. A film that was made in 1950 and which tells the story of this epic adventure later won an Oscar!

Heyerdahl gained public attention again on 17 May 1970 when he and a crew of seven completed a voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in a 12-metre long boat made of papyrus. This boat was called Ra-2 and was built by Indians from the vicinity of Lake Titicaca in South America where this type of boat is used.

Thor Heyerdahl wanted to prove that the ancient Egyptians had reached the Americas long before Columbus, and that they therefore had had a considerable influence on the American Indian civilization. Heyerdahl's voyage from Morocco in North Africa to Barbados, an island in the Caribbean Sea (960 km away) took about 57 days. Historians did not regard this voyage as important. But Heyerdahl and his crew made use of the opportunity to take samples of seawater to provide proof of the degree of oil pollution that was present in the Atlantic Ocean.

Thor Heyerdahl built a reed boat, the Tigris , with the help of South American Indians from the Lake Titicaca region and completed the distance sailed in the Ra-2 in both directions from 1977 to 1978. The evidence that he gathered of the increase in the oil pollution of the ocean was so shocking to him that he burnt his boat in protest.

During the 1980s, Thor Heyerdahl became more and more involved with campaigns against pollution.

Assessment

LEARNING OUTCOME 2: HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.

Assessment standard

We know this when the learner:

  • similarity and difference: identifies similarities and differences between past and present ways of doing things in a given context.

Memorandum

  1. Flying saucer, space shuttle, cable car, motorboat, rowing boat with flag.
  2. 1, 3, 8, 6, 5, 7, 4 (2 is a submarine).

c) Centrally situated for different sea-routes – especially for trade.

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11089/1.1
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