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In this chapter, we seek to present a demographic profile of the Latino population over the course of three decades— 1980 to 2000— using a U.S. decennial data. Because the Mexican-origin population represents the largest segment of the Latino population (approximately more than three-fifths are Mexican) and have the longest presence in this country (extending back to the signing of the Treat of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848), the analysis will provide an overview of the overall Latino and Mexico immigrant populations. The analysis focuses on several key demographic and socioeconomic attributes of the population. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the demographic and socioeconomic attributes of Latino immigrants on the institutions of the country. In order to understand the changes that will be outlined below, we begin by offering an historical context.

Historical context

Immigration from Latin America —more specifically from Mexico— is well entrenched in U.S. immigration policy and the periodic establishment of programs between Mexico and the United States. No other country besides Mexico has sent immigrants to the United States on a consistent basis since the early parts of the 20 th century. While Mexicans tended to move freely between across the Mexico-U.S. border during the 19 th century and early 20 th century, the volume of immigration rose dramatically in the 1910s during the Mexican Revolution. Spreading violence and social chaos in Mexico pushed Mexicans while U.S. employers pulled them to this country as well. Beginning in the 1880s, the United States had virtually halted Asian immigration, and had significantly reduced immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe beginning in the late 1910s. The void for cheap labor peaked with the passage of the National Origins Quota Acts of 1921 and 1924. U.S. employers readily welcomed Mexican immigrants to fill such jobs. Indeed, U.S. employers depending heavily on Mexican laborers pushed to exempt Mexicans from the requirements of the Immigration Act of 1917 (exempting them from literacy requirements and head tax fees) and excluding Mexico (along with the remainder of the Americas) from immigration quotas. The special treatment of Mexican immigrants at this time illustrates the deep linkages between the U.S. and Mexican governments in sustaining a steady supply of labor to the United States, a pattern that has been played out repeatedly.

However, the state of the U.S. economy has generally been the primary barometer for the degree to which Mexican immigrants have been welcomed or shunned in this country. For example, following the onslaught of the Great Depression in 1929, the United States established a repatriation program to send Mexicans back to Mexico, which resulted in the repatriation of approximately 1.5 million Mexicans.

Nonetheless, the demand for manual labor in the United States brought on by WWII and the absence of males in the labor market forced the U.S. government to change its immigration restrictive policies with the cooperation of the Mexican government. The two countries worked in unison for the importation of contract laborers to come from Mexico to the United States to fill this labor gap through the creation of the Bracero Program in 1942. The program was so popular among many U.S. employers—due to the cheap labor that it provided—that the Bracero Program was extended way past the end of WWII, finally ending in 1964. Approximately 4.6 million Mexicans came to the United States to work as braceros .

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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