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Histology

he wall of the stomach is made of the same four layers as most of the rest of the alimentary canal, but with adaptations to the mucosa and muscularis for the unique functions of this organ. In addition to the typical circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers, the muscularis has an third layer of muscle, the oblique muscle layer ( [link] )which allows the stomach to vigorously churn food, mechanically breaking it down into smaller particles.

Histology of the stomach

This diagram shows the histological cross-section of the stomach. The left panel shows the stomach and the center panel shows a magnified view of a small region including the epithelium and the gastric glands. The right panel shows a further magnification of the mucosa and the different cell types are labeled.
The stomach wall is adapted for the functions of the stomach. In the epithelium, gastric pits lead to gastric glands that secrete gastric juice. The gastric glands (one gland is shown enlarged on the right) contain different types of cells that secrete a variety of enzymes, including hydrochloride acid, which activates the protein-digesting enzyme pepsin.

The stomach mucosa’s epithelial lining consists only of surface mucus cells, which secrete a protective coat of alkaline mucus. A vast number of gastric pits dot the surface of the epithelium, giving it the appearance of a well-used pincushion, and mark the entry to each gastric gland    , which secretes a complex digestive fluid referred to as gastric juice .

Although the walls of the gastric pits are made up primarily of mucus cells, the gastric glands also include chief cells and parietal cells. Cells that make up the area of the pyloris secrete mucus and a number of hormones, including the majority of the stimulatory hormone, gastrin    . The much larger glands of the fundus and body of the stomach, the site of most chemical digestion, produce most of the gastric secretions. These glands are made up of a variety of secretory cells. These include parietal cells, chief cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells.

Parietal cells —Located primarily in the middle region of the gastric glands are parietal cells which produce both hydrochloric acid (HCl)    and intrinsic factor    . HCl is responsible for the high acidity (pH 1.5 to 3.5) of the stomach contents and is needed to activate the protein-digesting enzyme, pepsin . The acidity also kills much of the bacteria you ingest with food and helps to break down proteins, making them more available for enzymatic digestion. Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein necessary for the absorption of vitamin B 12 in the small intestine.

Chief cells —Also located primarily in the gastric glands are chief cells , which secrete pepsinogen    , the inactive substance that will convert to pepsin. HCl is necessary for the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin. Enteroendocrine cells —Finally, enteroendocrine cells which are also found in the gastric glands secrete various hormones. Do not take notes on table below.

[link] describes the digestive functions of important hormones secreted by the stomach.

Hormones Secreted by the Stomach
Hormone Production site Production stimulus Target organ Action
Gastrin Stomach mucosa, mainly G cells of the pyloric antrum Presence of peptides and amino acids in stomach Stomach Increases secretion by gastric glands; promotes gastric emptying
Gastrin Stomach mucosa, mainly G cells of the pyloric antrum Presence of peptides and amino acids in stomach Small intestine Promotes intestinal muscle contraction
Gastrin Stomach mucosa, mainly G cells of the pyloric antrum Presence of peptides and amino acids in stomach Ileocecal valve Relaxes valve
Gastrin Stomach mucosa, mainly G cells of the pyloric antrum Presence of peptides and amino acids in stomach Large intestine Triggers mass movements
Ghrelin Stomach mucosa, mainly fundus Fasting state (levels increase just prior to meals) Hypothalamus Regulates food intake, primarily by stimulating hunger and satiety
Histamine Stomach mucosa Presence of food in the stomach Stomach Stimulates parietal cells to release HCl
Serotonin Stomach mucosa Presence of food in the stomach Stomach Contracts stomach muscle
Somatostatin Mucosa of stomach, especially pyloric antrum; also duodenum Presence of food in the stomach; sympathetic axon stimulation Stomach Restricts all gastric secretions, gastric motility, and emptying
Somatostatin Mucosa of stomach, especially pyloric antrum; also duodenum Presence of food in the stomach; sympathetic axon stimulation Pancreas Restricts pancreatic secretions
Somatostatin Mucosa of stomach, especially pyloric antrum; also duodenum Presence of food in the stomach; sympathetic axon stimulation Small intestine Reduces intestinal absorption by reducing blood flow

Questions & Answers

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Damian Reply
research.net
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
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That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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s.
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for screen printed electrodes ?
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of graphene you mean?
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or in general
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in general
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Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Digestive system. OpenStax CNX. Feb 23, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11761/1.1
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