# 9.1 Graphical representation of data

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## Graphical representation of data

Once the data has been collected, it must be organised in a manner that allows for the information to be extracted most efficiently. One method of organisation is to display the data in the form of graphs. Functions and graphs have been studied in  Functions and Graphs , and similar techniques will be used here. However, instead of drawing graphs from equations as was done in Functions and graphs , bar graphs, histograms and pie charts will be drawn directly from the data.

## Bar and compound bar graphs

A bar chart is used to present data where each observation falls into a specific category and where the categories, this is often for qualitative data. The frequencies (or percentages) are listed along the $y$ -axis and the categories are listed along the $x$ -axis. The heights of the bars correspond to the frequencies. The bars are of equal width and should not touch neighbouring bars.

A compound bar chart (also called component bar chart) is a variant: here the bars are cut into various components depending on what is being shown. If percentages are used for various components of a compound bar, then the total bar height must be 100%. The compound bar chart is a little more complex but if this method is used sensibly, a lot of information can be quickly shown in an attractive fashion.

Examples of a bar and a compound bar graph, for Data Set 1 , are shown in [link] . According to the frequency table for Data Set 1, the coin landed heads-up 44 times and tails-up 56 times.

## Histograms and frequency polygons

It is often useful to look at the frequency with which certain values fall in pre-set groups or classes of specified sizes. The choice of the groups should be such that they help highlight features in the data. If these grouped values are plotted in a manner similar to a bar graph, then the resulting graph is known as a histogram. Examples of histograms are shown in [link] for Data Set 2, with group sizes of 1 and 2.

 Groups $0 1 $1 2 $2 3 $3 4 $4 5 $5 6 Frequency 30 32 35 34 37 32
 Groups $0 2 $2 4 $4 6 Frequency 62 69 69

The same data used to plot a histogram are used to plot a frequency polygon, except the pair of data values are plotted as a point and the points are joined with straight lines. The frequency polygons for the histograms in [link] are shown in [link] .

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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