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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Define the pelvic girdle and describe the bones and ligaments of the pelvis
  • Explain the three regions of the hip bone and identify their bony landmarks
  • Describe the openings of the pelvis and the boundaries of the greater and lesser pelvis

The pelvic girdle    (hip girdle) is formed by a single bone, the hip bone    or coxal bone    (coxal = “hip”), which serves as the attachment point for each lower limb. Each hip bone, in turn, is firmly joined to the axial skeleton via its attachment to the sacrum of the vertebral column. The right and left hip bones also converge anteriorly to attach to each other. The bony pelvis    is the entire structure formed by the two hip bones, the sacrum, and, attached inferiorly to the sacrum, the coccyx ( [link] ).

Unlike the bones of the pectoral girdle, which are highly mobile to enhance the range of upper limb movements, the bones of the pelvis are strongly united to each other to form a largely immobile, weight-bearing structure. This is important for stability because it enables the weight of the body to be easily transferred laterally from the vertebral column, through the pelvic girdle and hip joints, and into either lower limb whenever the other limb is not bearing weight. Thus, the immobility of the pelvis provides a strong foundation for the upper body as it rests on top of the mobile lower limbs.

Pelvis

This figure shows the bone of the pelvis.
The pelvic girdle is formed by a single hip bone. The hip bone attaches the lower limb to the axial skeleton through its articulation with the sacrum. The right and left hip bones, plus the sacrum and the coccyx, together form the pelvis.

Hip bone

The hip bone, or coxal bone, forms the pelvic girdle portion of the pelvis. The paired hip bones are the large, curved bones that form the lateral and anterior aspects of the pelvis. Each adult hip bone is formed by three separate bones that fuse together during the late teenage years. These bony components are the ilium, ischium, and pubis ( [link] ). These names are retained and used to define the three regions of the adult hip bone.

The hip bone

This figure shows the right hip bone. The left panel shows the lateral view, and the right panel shows the medial view.
The adult hip bone consists of three regions. The ilium forms the large, fan-shaped superior portion, the ischium forms the posteroinferior portion, and the pubis forms the anteromedial portion.

The ilium    is the fan-like, superior region that forms the largest part of the hip bone. It is firmly united to the sacrum at the largely immobile sacroiliac joint    (see [link] ). The ischium    forms the posteroinferior region of each hip bone. It supports the body when sitting. The pubis    forms the anterior portion of the hip bone. The pubis curves medially, where it joins to the pubis of the opposite hip bone at a specialized joint called the pubic symphysis    .

Ilium

When you place your hands on your waist, you can feel the arching, superior margin of the ilium along your waistline (see [link] ). This curved, superior margin of the ilium is the iliac crest    . The rounded, anterior termination of the iliac crest is the anterior superior iliac spine    . This important bony landmark can be felt at your anterolateral hip. Inferior to the anterior superior iliac spine is a rounded protuberance called the anterior inferior iliac spine    . Both of these iliac spines serve as attachment points for muscles of the thigh. Posteriorly, the iliac crest curves downward to terminate as the posterior superior iliac spine    . Muscles and ligaments surround but do not cover this bony landmark, thus sometimes producing a depression seen as a “dimple” located on the lower back. More inferiorly is the posterior inferior iliac spine    . This is located at the inferior end of a large, roughened area called the auricular surface of the ilium    . The auricular surface articulates with the auricular surface of the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint. Both the posterior superior and posterior inferior iliac spines serve as attachment points for the muscles and very strong ligaments that support the sacroiliac joint.

Questions & Answers

Which plane can I use to observe a head moving sideways expressing the word " no"
Marion Reply
I didn't understand what you mean
Dalal
sagittal plane , is that correct?
Murat
The eyes is _____ to the nose.
Duchess Reply
proximal?😆
Xenia
Proximal can be used at the beginning or nearer to. Mostly used with the limbs
HANNAH
Is okay if you say that the eyes are superior to the nose
HANNAH
it is ok , but how about this "my eyes are located at the superior of my nose " ? is it right way to say?
Murat
eye is lateral to the nose
Ihica
It's okay bt omit tha preposition 'of' and that article 'the'
HANNAH
Yeah that's correct
HANNAH
I think it's better this way "my eyes are further higher to my nose"
Josefs
The eyes is further higher to the nose.
Josefs
There is nothing like this in a medical field. Do your research appropriately
HANNAH
superior
Marion
cellular cell tissue organ organ system organismal
Joan Reply
What are the difference between famele bones and male bones
Prince Reply
males have stronger and bigger bones as compare to female also heavy in weight and the pelvis region ia little differnt
Fahad
The major digestive gland
Jasamin Reply
salivary gland present in mouth.
Sneha
yeah it's right answer
hanuman
salivary gland present in mouth secret amylase enzyme
Fahad
salivary gland
Ana
The neck is _____ to the navel.
Duchess Reply
connected
FAITH
connected
Fartun
.
Rachna
cranial
Sarah
the function of pancreatic juice is
Elastus
connected/attached
Fahad
function of pancreatic juice is to break down the sugar , fats and starches
Fahad
Superior
Jerry
attached
Okonkama
distal
Susan
lateral
Susan
connected
Ana
Hi
Pennabadi
hi
Ana
hi
Rafiullah
hey
Luzvi
hello there
Bright
hi
Don
superior
Jamealla
Describe the sequence of injuries that may occur if the extended, weight-bearing knee receives a very strong blow to the lateral side of the knee.
Dondon Reply
what is anotomy and waht is phesiology
chanbasha Reply
anatomy is classified the origin physiology is functional of origin
oHo
classified origin functional of origin
Sheryl
Anatomy is the origin of the human body Physiology is the function of the human body
Rose
the female ovaries and the male testes are a part of which body system?can those organs be members of more than one organ? why or why not? need help
Michelle
Anatomy is the study of internal parts of the body and how they relate with each other while physiology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the study of functions of these structures
HANNAH
The female ovaries and male testes are in the reproductive system. Yes like testes can be in the urinary system although ovaries remais in the reproductive organs only.
HANNAH
Differentiate between pharmacist and apothecary
adanoor Reply
What is metatarsal
Ndotenyin Reply
bone of the foot is known as metatarsal
Patrick
yes 👆 right
Sneha
metatarsal (foot bone).....👍
Rishi
what is the meaning for cadavers
Malar
yes metatarsal are foot bone
Rakiya
the term "mental" pertain to which of the following a. chin b.navel c. ear d. nose e. skull
cris Reply
a
Lina
chin
Sneha
hi
Mohamed
skull
Monica
skull
Peter
chin
Kelly
skull
Juma
skull
Gul
skull
Laraib
skull
anwaar
skull
Nirmala
skull
Tessmol
chin
Derrick
mental chin nerve
Katarzyna
e. skull
Jennifer
skull
prince
e. skull
Natasha
It's not skull but chin
mwango
the skull
Rakiya
what are the three many components of the lymphatic system?
Milica Reply
those are...... organ, tissue and blood capillary or vessals
Juma
anatomical terms and use them appropriatly in the language of anatomy of anterior body landmarks
Teody Reply
what is human anatomy?
rascal Reply
lts stady structured human body's
Sa
what is the study of how the body functions?
Bright
What is human anatomy
Sherifat
human antomy is the body of structure
Malar
is the study of human body
Rakiya
what is abdomipelvic cavity?
david Reply
Includes all organs within the abdomen(stomach,intestines) and those from the pelvic region hence the name... abdomipelvic
Maureen

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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