<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

High performance microprocessors

It has been said that history is rewritten by the victors. It is clear that high performance RISC-based microprocessors are defining the current history of high performance computing. We begin our study with the basic building blocks of modern high performance computing: the high performance RISC microprocessors.

A complex instruction set computer (CISC) instruction set is made up of powerful primitives, close in functionality to the primitives of high-level languages like C or FORTRAN. It captures the sense of “don’t do in software what you can do in hardware.” RISC, on the other hand, emphasizes low-level primitives, far below the complexity of a high-level language. You can compute anything you want using either approach, though it will probably take more machine instructions if you’re using RISC. The important difference is that with RISC you can trade instruction-set complexity for speed.

To be fair, RISC isn’t really all that new. There were some important early machines that pioneered RISC philosophies, such as the CDC 6600 (1964) and the IBM 801 project (1975). It was in the mid-1980s, however, that RISC machines first posed a direct challenge to the CISC installed base. Heated debate broke out — RISC versus CISC — and even lingers today, though it is clear that the RISC One of the most interesting remaining topics is the definition of “RISC.” Don’t be fooled into thinking there is one definition of RISC. The best I have heard so far is from John Mashey: “RISC is a label most commonly used for a set of instruction set architecture characteristics chosen to ease the use of aggressive implementation techniques found in high performance processors (regardless of RISC, CISC, or irrelevant).” approach is in greatest favor; late-generation CISC machines are looking more RISC-like, and some very old families of CISC, such as the DEC VAX, are being retired.

This chapter is about CISC and RISC instruction set architectures and the differences between them. We also describe newer processors that can execute more than one instruction at a time and can execute instructions out of order.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'High performance computing' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask