# 0.9 Cyclotron  (Page 5/5)

 Page 5 / 5

$N=\frac{{q}^{2}{B}^{2}{R}^{2}}{4mqV}$

and

${K}_{\text{max}}=2qNV$

Clearly, the numbers of revolutions is inversely proportional to the potential difference applied in the gap. On the other hand, maximum energy of the particle is directly proportional to the product “NV”. Combining two facts, we find that energy of the particle is indeed independent of the applied voltage in the gap.

## Limitations of cyclotron

We have already noted two limitations of cyclotron as accelerator. One limitation is that it can not accelerate neutral particle. Second limitation is that lighter elementary particles like electrons or positrons can not be accelerated and requires important changes or modifications of the device. In addition to these, there are two other important limitations as described here.

## Relativistic effect

The relativistic effect becomes significant enough to be neglected when particle achieve 10 % of the speed of light. The energy corresponding to this speed for a proton is about 5MeV. Initially, the small relativistic effect is accommodated by an standard cyclotron, but it begins to fail to accelerate charged particle at higher energy level of 50 MeV or so.

At higher speed, the mass of the particle increases in accordance with following equation :

$m=\frac{{m}_{0}}{\sqrt{\left(1-\frac{{v}^{2}}{{c}^{2}}\right)}}$

where mo is rest mass and c is the speed of light in vacuum. The particle becomes heavier at higher speed. Putting this in the expression of frequency, we have :

$⇒\nu =\frac{qB\sqrt{\left(1-\frac{{v}^{2}}{{c}^{2}}\right)}}{2\pi {m}_{0}}$ $⇒\nu ={\nu }_{0}\sqrt{\left(1-\frac{{v}^{2}}{{c}^{2}}\right)}$

where ${\nu }_{0}$ is classical frequency. Clearly, the frequency of revolution decreases with increasing velocity whereas frequency of applied electrical oscillator is fixed. The particle, therefore, gets out of step with the alternating electrical field. As a result, speed of the particle does not increase beyond a certain value.

## High energy particle

The cyclotron is also limited by the mere requirement of magnet size as radius of Dees increases with increasing speed of the particle being accelerated. Let us calculate speed corresponding of a 100 GeV particle in a magnetic field of 1 T. The radius of revolution is related to kinetic energy :

${K}_{\text{max}}=\frac{{q}^{2}{B}^{2}{R}^{2}}{2m}$ $⇒R=\sqrt{\left(\frac{2m{K}_{\text{max}}}{{q}^{2}{B}^{2}}\right)}$

The given kinetic energy is :

$⇒{K}_{\text{max}}=100X{10}^{9}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}eV={10}^{11}X1.6X{10}^{-19}=1.6X{10}^{-8}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}J$

Now, putting values assuming particle to be a proton,

$⇒R=\sqrt{\left(\frac{2X1.66X{10}^{-27}X1.6X{10}^{-8}}{{\left(1.6X{10}^{-19}\right)}^{2}X1}\right)}$ $⇒R=0.144X{10}^{2}=14.4m$

We can imagine how costly it would be to create magnet of such an extent. For higher energy, the required radius could be in kilometers.

## Synchrocyclotron and synchrotron

The synchrocyclotron is a device that addresses the limitation due to relativistic effect. The frequency of oscillator is reduced gradually in order to maintain the resonance with the spiral motion of charged particle. Note that magnetic field remains constant as in the case of cyclotron.

In synchrotron as against synchrocyclotron, both magnetic field and electric field are variable. It aims to address both the limitations due to relativistic effect as well as due to the requirement of large cross section of magnets. The particle is accelerated along a fixed large circular path inside a torus shaped tunnel. The magnetic field here bends the particle, where as electric field changes speed. Clearly, the requirement of a large cross section of magnet is converted into multiple bending magnets along a large radius fixed circular path.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!