<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
  • Understand how social epidemiology can be applied to health in the United States
  • Explain disparities of health based on gender, socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity
  • Give an overview of mental health and disability issues in the United States
  • Explain the terms stigma and medicalization

Health in the United States is a complex and often contradictory issue. One the one hand, as one of the wealthiest nations, the United States fares well in health comparisons with the rest of the world. However, the United States also lags behind almost every industrialized country in terms of providing care to all its citizens. The following sections look at different aspects of health in the United States.

Health by race and ethnicity

When looking at the social epidemiology of the United States, it is hard to miss the disparities among races. The discrepancy between black and white Americans shows the gap clearly; in 2008, the average life expectancy for white males was approximately five years longer than for black males: 75.9 compared to 70.9. An even stronger disparity was found in 2007: the infant mortality    , which is the number of deaths in a given time or place, rate for blacks was nearly twice that of whites at 13.2 compared to 5.6 per 1,000 live births (U.S. Census Bureau 2011). According to a report from the Henry J. Kaiser Foundation (2007), African Americans also have higher incidence of several other diseases and causes of mortality, from cancer to heart disease to diabetes. In a similar vein, it is important to note that ethnic minorities, including Mexican Americans and Native Americans, also have higher rates of these diseases and causes of mortality than whites.

Lisa Berkman (2009) notes that this gap started to narrow during the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s, but it began widening again in the early 1980s. What accounts for these perpetual disparities in health among different ethnic groups? Much of the answer lies in the level of healthcare that these groups receive. The National Healthcare Disparities Report (2010) shows that even after adjusting for insurance differences, racial and ethnic minority groups receive poorer quality of care and less access to care than dominant groups. The Report identified these racial inequalities in care:

  1. Black Americans, American Indians, and Alaskan Natives received inferior care than Caucasian Americans for about 40 percent of measures.
  2. Asian ethnicities received inferior care for about 20 percent of measures.
  3. Among whites, Hispanic whites received 60 percent inferior care of measures compared to non-Hispanic whites (Agency for Health Research and Quality 2010). When considering access to care, the figures were comparable.

Health by socioeconomic status

Discussions of health by race and ethnicity often overlap with discussions of health by socioeconomic status, since the two concepts are intertwined in the United States. As the Agency for Health Research and Quality (2010) notes, “racial and ethnic minorities are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to be poor or near poor,” so many of the data pertaining to subordinate groups is also likely to be pertinent to low socioeconomic groups. Marilyn Winkleby and her research associates (1992) state that “one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of a person's morbidity and mortality experience is that person's socioeconomic status (SES). This finding persists across all diseases with few exceptions, continues throughout the entire lifespan, and extends across numerous risk factors for disease.” Morbidity is the incidence of disease.

Questions & Answers

Who is the father of modern sociology
Shah Reply
who is the fat60f modern sociology
Shah Reply
Who is the father of sociology
Shah
august compte is called a father of sociology
Ritu
what can one become after studying sociology in Nigeria
Chisom Reply
What is the Socialization is culturally specific, but this does not mean certain cultures talking about?
Sammi Reply
yes
Kenneth
v
Kenneth
what is serfdom by Karl Marx
Ritu Reply
the condition of a tenant farmer bound to a hereditary plot of land and to the will of a landlord. it is Another form of slavery.
APARNA
thanks
Ritu
ghati and legory is markx
Abid
we often listen that he does root learning or he understand the concepts still I don't know what is difference between those ....which symptom shows ...
Ritu Reply
I asked from many literate people but don't gave a satisfied answer
Ritu
i asked from many literate people but they don't gave satisfied answer
Ritu
.....
Ritu
watch Jordan Peterson lectures on learning, it can clarify your misunderstanding
Sourabh
about what
Rafiq
yea! tell about what?
Badar
difference between understanding and root learning ..Because both seem the same from outside
Ritu
I would recommend watching Jordan Peterson lectures on learning (available on YouTube), It may help.
Sourabh
all right thanks
Ritu
learning and understanding are two sides of one coin.
Rafiq
all right
Abid
inequality and social fractionalization how differenciated?
Siam Reply
fractionalization is reality it's positive .without social fractionalization social system will be destroy ... it is compulsory and inequality is a negative approach .both are different
Ritu
if there is negation of negation of everything so what is negation. of primitive communism stage
Ritu Reply
?
Ritu
hermits,vagrants and alcoholics are examples of
tajown Reply
These are examples of social deviants because their ways of life violate social norms.
Mary
how to convert in hindi
bb Reply
society is a major cause of alienation .not individual ..why?
Ritu Reply
what is Upward mobility
Ritu
upward mobility is movement from lower status to higher status in hierarchy
SHIVAM
what is difference between Candidate Socialization and Adult Socialization
Ritu
what is the difference between general test and standardized test
NIRUPAM
one member can't do anything . so society is a major cause of alienation
NIRUPAM
but alienation is psychological state of individuals ....
Ritu
hegal says that Alienati is a social psychological condition that dissuades a person from his social existence.
Ritu
standardized test is scientific and general test is mere subjective or not scientific
Ritu
accha ..thank u ...Ritu
NIRUPAM
what are the effects of covid 19 on culture in our society
SAMUEL Reply
Here in America, where quarantine is being lifted slowly throughout the country, cases are beginning to rise again due to people laxing on wearing masks and continuing to practice social distancing. I believe this is causing anomie.
Mary
ghati
Abid
Truth, Abid 👍🏽
Mary
Love you
Abid
When it is a matter of culture, people are paying more attention to culture. Somewhere the positive effect of this quarantine is also happening.
Ritu
it a reality of a men before quarantine everybody was busy in their particular works like youth was busy in study family's was busy in earning money but naw I think people are realizing that there are more thing like a feeling of caring not just for own self but for a country in short nationalism .
Ritu
we r also going towards are culture we r giving more time towards culture .as I watch people are giving time on cultural food whether it is dance,dressup ,kahin na kahin this time making us psychologically and imotionally strong towards are feeling for nation 🙏. .
Ritu
this is best opportunity for making us still better then we was..we all should make the best use of such opportunity for improving our internal skill to better our self
Ritu
Describe an iron cage that leads to a false consciousness.
Mary Reply
Pakistan Govt is an iron cage that leads to false conscience
Abid
Please explain to me why you feel this way about the Pakistan Govt. I am from the Midwest in America.
Mary
for this you you may read the policies that makes by Pakistan govt for Pakistan
Ritu
@Ritu Verma : Improve English
Milan
This is the way to Improve English.. we have to appreciate the person who want to improve this international language.
Safed
I feel blind faith is an iron cage, that leads to false consciousness. For eg. There are certain rituals in relegion, which doesn't help anybody, also can harm people/animals but those who have blind faith in relegion, they have the consciousness of doing very meaningful.
Milan
@Safed, pointing out mistakes, inspires you to improve. that was my intention.
Milan
yes sir i respect your point I will never take it the other way i respect your point .. thank you ..The people who tell me my mistakes, they help me get success more quickly.
Ritu
always I welcome people who does ..you r ryt sir
Ritu
Is sociology different from common sense ? How ?
NIRUPAM
yaa is a different from practical intelligence ...bcz it's a pure science Sociologist does not do his knowledge in practical area.
Ritu
A sociologist, for example, does not determine social policies in the same way that a physicist does not build bridges.
Ritu
The job of a sociologist is to understand the facts as they are. Sociologist tells the relevant knowledge.
Ritu
It is the work of administrators, leaders and repressors to give practical shape
Ritu
It is right ? thinking of sociologist are different from other common people . How ?
NIRUPAM
what you mean by common people .... clear it
Ritu
may be u r ryt its bcz a sociologist observe fact with Interdisciplinary approach
Ritu
you may should read hirarichy of science by August compte
Ritu
The subject matter and subject area of ​​a sociologist is very broad and dynamic.
Ritu
A sociologist has to study the entire society which includes Economics, Geography, Physical, Political, Astronomy, Math, History, Anthropology and much more.
Ritu
So we can say that a sociologist's thinking is slightly different from the common people
Ritu
naw u free to agree or disagree
Ritu
yes
Siam
i am student of economics,but i am interest in sociology
Siam
you may go ahead ... with this it gives knowledge that will very good for upsc or pcs and ias
Ritu
economics has a great effect on society and is a key factor in social stratification. To understand sociology better one has to have a basic knowledge of economics.
Abu
personally sociology is a key of all success .I. m doing graduation in politics still i will give entrance in sociology
Ritu
Sociology is not a single subject, it is combination of different subjects.
Abu
hmmm ryt
Ritu
what's sociology?
Amos Reply
Sociology is a social science that studies the society, social institutions and all what pertains the making of a society.
Victor
well answer
Abid
good ans
Sihab
sociology is intrecation between two persons or group which perform some rules
Abid
sociology means socio
Abid
Sociology is the study of human socialrelationships and institutions. ... At the personal level, sociology investigates thesocial causes and consequences of such things as romantic love, racial and gender identity, family conflict, deviant behavior, aging, and religious faith.
Abid
smart Answer
Chakra
gagagagaga
Abid
h
Shiv
ghati
Abid
sociology is the study of the development,structure and functioning of human society.
xamdi
ok
Mathew
Importance of the study of culture and society
Hafsa Reply
do you know abou🖕🖕
Abid
democratic principles and national values have to be grounded in cultural understanding of the society, which can enhance the developmental decisions and harmonious relationship with social groups.
Sourabh
technology and culture have an intimate exchange of acceptance and rejection. the possible emergence of bad elements when there is an introduction of new technology in a relatively stagnant society can be recognised through a clear understanding of cultural values.
Sourabh
sociology itself emerged when there was a technological change (the industrial revolution) and the society with its contemporary culture faced numerous challenges
Sourabh
love you
Abid

Get the best Introduction to sociol... course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Introduction to sociology 2e' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask