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A chunk begins with the chunk type , a four-byte string whose value is either MThd for a header chunk or MTrk for a track chunk. The chunk length follows this string, and indicates the number of bytes remaining in the chunk. The chunk length is a 32-bit unsigned integer in big-endian format, i.e., the most-significant byte is first.

Header chunk

The header chunk begins with the string MThd , and is followed by a fixed chunk length value of 6; as a 32-bit unsigned integer this is 0x00_00_00_06.

The file type follows, and is a 16-bit unsigned integer that takes on one of three possible values: 0 (0x00_00) indicates single track data, 1 (0x00_01) indicates multi-track data which is vertically synchronous (i.e., they are parts of the same song), and 2 (0x00_02) indicates multi-track data with no implied timing relationship between tracks. Type 1 is by far the most common, where each track contains MIDI messages on a single channel. In this way tracks can be associated with a single instrument and recorded individually

Next is the number of tracks , a 16-bit unsigned integer. The number of tracks can range from one (0x00_01) to 65,535 (0xFF_FF). In practice the number of tracks is typically about 20 or so.

The last value in the header chunk is the division , a 16-bit unsigned integer that indicates the number of ticks per quarter note . The tick is a dimensionless unit of time, and is the smallest grain of time used to indicate the interval between events. A typical value of division is 120 (0x00_78).

Track chunk

The track chunk begins with the string MTrk , and is followed by the track length , a 32-bit unsigned integer that indicates the number of bytes remaining in the track. In theory a track could be as long as 4 Gbytes!

The remainder of the track is composed of pairs of delta-times and events. A delta-time is in units of tics, and indicates the time interval between events. An event is either a MIDI message or a meta-event . Meta-events are unique to the standard MIDI file, and indicate information such as track name, tempo, copyright notice, lyric text, and so on.

A delta time uses variable-length format ( VLF ), and can be anywhere from one to four bytes in length. Short delta times require only one byte, and long delta times can require up to four bytes. Since short delta times tend to dominate the standard MIDI file (think of a chord hit that generates a burst of Note-On messages with very little time between events), most of the delta times are only one byte long and the overall file size is thus minimized. However, since very long delta times must be accommodated as well, the variable-length format can use up to four bytes to represent very long time intervals.

Variable-length format

Variable-length format ( VLF ) is used to represent delta times and the length of meta-events (to be described below). A numerical value represented in VLF requires from one to four bytes, depending on the size of the numerical value. Since the standard MIDI file is parsed one byte at a time, some type of scheme is required to let the parser know the length of the VLF number. A naïve approach would be to include an additional byte at the beginning of the VLF to indicate the number of bytes remaining in the value. However, this approach would mean that a delta time always requires a minimum of two bytes. Instead, the VLF uses the most-significant bit (MSB) as a flag to indicate whether more bytes follow.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Musical signal processing with labview -- midi for synthesis and algorithm control. OpenStax CNX. Nov 09, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10487/1.2
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