<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >


Watch glass, bunsen burner, methanol, bamboo sticks, metal salts (e.g. NaCl , CuCl 2 , CaCl 2 , KCl , etc. ) and metal powders (e.g. copper, magnesium, zinc, iron, etc.)


For each salt or powder do the following:
  1. Dip a clean bamboo stick into the methanol
  2. Dip the stick into the salt or powder
  3. Wave the stick through the flame from the bunsen burner. DO NOT hold the stick in the flame, but rather wave it back and forth through the flame.
  4. Observe what happens


Record your results in a table, listing the metal salt and the colour of the flame.


You should have observed different colours for each of the metal salts and powders that you tested.

The above experiment on flame tests relates to the line emission spectra of the metals. These line emission spectra are a direct result of the arrangement of the electrons in metals.

Energy diagrams and electrons

  1. Draw Aufbau diagrams to show the electron configuration of each of the following elements:
    1. magnesium
    2. potassium
    3. sulphur
    4. neon
    5. nitrogen
  2. Use the Aufbau diagrams you drew to help you complete the following table:
    Element No. of energy levels No. of core electrons No. of valence electrons Electron configuration (standard notation)
  3. Rank the elements used above in order of increasing reactivity . Give reasons for the order you give.

Group work : building a model of an atom

Earlier in this chapter, we talked about different 'models' of the atom. In science, one of the uses of models is that they can help us to understand the structure of something that we can't see. In the case of the atom, models help us to build a picture in our heads of what the atom looks like.

Models are often simplified. The small toy cars that you may have played with as a child are models. They give you a good idea of what a real car looks like, but they are much smaller and much simpler. A model cannot always be absolutely accurate and it is important that we realise this so that we don't build up a false idea about something.

In groups of 4-5, you are going to build a model of an atom. Before you start, think about these questions:

  • What information do I know about the structure of the atom? (e.g. what parts make it up? how big is it?)
  • What materials can I use to represent these parts of the atom as accurately as I can?
  • How will I put all these different parts together in my model?

As a group, share your ideas and then plan how you will build your model. Once you have built your model, discuss the following questions:

  • Does our model give a good idea of what the atom actually looks like?
  • In what ways is our model inaccurate ? For example, we know that electrons move around the atom's nucleus, but in your model, it might not have been possible for you to show this.
  • Are there any ways in which our model could be improved?

Now look at what other groups have done. Discuss the same questions for each of the models you see and record your answers.

The following simulation allows you to build an atom
run demo

Build an atom simulation

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
Yash Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Chemistry grade 10 [caps]' conversation and receive update notifications?