# 4.10 Artificial satellites  (Page 3/4)

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## Relation among energy types

The expression of mechanical energy of the “Earth – satellite” system is typical of two body system in which one body revolves around other along a circular path. Particularly note the expression of each of the energy in the equation,

$E=K+U$

$⇒-\frac{GMm}{2r}=\frac{GMm}{2r}-\frac{GMm}{r}$

Comparing above two equations, we see that magnitude of total mechanical energy is equal to kinetic energy, but different in sign. Hence,

$E=-K$

Also, we note that total mechanical energy is half of potential energy. Hence,

$E=\frac{U}{2}$

These relations are very significant. We shall find resemblance of forms of energies in the case of Bohr’s orbit as well. In that case, nucleus of hydrogen atom and electron form the two – body system and are held together by the electrostatic force.

Importantly, it provides an unique method to determine other energies, if we know any of them. For example, if the system has mechanical energy of $-200X{10}^{6}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}J$ , then :

$K=-E=-\left(-200X{10}^{6}\right)=200X{10}^{6}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}J$

and

$U=2E=-400X{10}^{6}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}J$

## Energy plots of a satellite

An inspection of the expression of energy forms reveals that that linear distance “r” is the only parameter that can be changed for a satellite of given mass, “m”. From these expressions, it is also easy to realize that they have similar structure apart from having different signs. The product “GMm” is divided by “r” or “2r”. This indicates that nature of variation in their values with linear distance “r” should be similar.

Since kinetic energy is a positive quantity, a plot of kinetic energy .vs. linear distance, “r”, is a hyperbola in the first quadrant. The expression of mechanical energy is exactly same except for the negative sign. Its plot with linear distance, therefore, is an inverted replica of kinetic energy plot in fourth quadrant. Potential energy is also negative like mechanical energy. Its plot also falls in the fourth quadrant. However, magnitude of potential energy is greater than that of mechanical energy as such the plot is displaced further away from the origin as shown in the figure.

From plots, we can conclude one important aspect of zero potential reference at infinity. From the figure, it is clear that as the distance increases and becomes large, not only potential energy, but kinetic energy also tends to become zero. We can, therefore, conclude that an object at infinity possess zero potential and kinetic energy. In other words, mechanical energy of an object at infinity is considered zero.

## Gravitational binding energy

A system is bounded when constituents of the system are held together. The “Earth-satellite” system is a bounded system as members of the system are held together by gravitational attraction. Subsequently, we shall study such other bounded systems, which exist in other contexts as well. Bounded system of nucleons in a nucleus is one such example.

The characterizing aspect of a bounded system is that mechanical energy of the system is negative. However, we need to qualify that it is guaranteed to be negative when zero reference potential energy is at infinity.

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