# 4.2 Graphs of exponential functions  (Page 3/6)

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## Shifts of the parent function f ( x ) = b x

For any constants $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}d,$ the function $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={b}^{x+c}+d\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ shifts the parent function $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={b}^{x}$

• vertically $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}d\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units, in the same direction of the sign of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}d.$
• horizontally $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units, in the opposite direction of the sign of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c.$
• The y -intercept becomes $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(0,{b}^{c}+d\right).$
• The horizontal asymptote becomes $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=d.$
• The range becomes $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(d,\infty \right).$
• The domain, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,\infty \right),$ remains unchanged.

Given an exponential function with the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={b}^{x+c}+d,$ graph the translation.

1. Draw the horizontal asymptote $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=d.$
2. Identify the shift as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-c,d\right).\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Shift the graph of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={b}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ left $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units if $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is positive, and right $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units if $c\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is negative.
3. Shift the graph of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={b}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ up $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}d\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units if $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}d\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is positive, and down $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}d\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ units if $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}d\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is negative.
4. State the domain, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,\infty \right),$ the range, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(d,\infty \right),$ and the horizontal asymptote $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=d.$

## Graphing a shift of an exponential function

Graph $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={2}^{x+1}-3.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ State the domain, range, and asymptote.

We have an exponential equation of the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={b}^{x+c}+d,$ with $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}b=2,$ $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}c=1,$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}d=-3.$

Draw the horizontal asymptote $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=d$ , so draw $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=-3.$

Identify the shift as $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-c,d\right),$ so the shift is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-1,-3\right).$

Shift the graph of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={b}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ left 1 units and down 3 units.

The domain is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,\infty \right);\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the range is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-3,\infty \right);\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the horizontal asymptote is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=-3.$

Graph $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={2}^{x-1}+3.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ State domain, range, and asymptote.

The domain is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(-\infty ,\infty \right);\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the range is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\left(3,\infty \right);\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ the horizontal asymptote is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=3.$ Given an equation of the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={b}^{x+c}+d\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x,$ use a graphing calculator to approximate the solution.

• Press [Y=] . Enter the given exponential equation in the line headed “ Y 1 = ”.
• Enter the given value for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ in the line headed “ Y 2 = ”.
• Press [WINDOW] . Adjust the y -axis so that it includes the value entered for “ Y 2 = ”.
• Press [GRAPH] to observe the graph of the exponential function along with the line for the specified value of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right).$
• To find the value of $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x,$ we compute the point of intersection. Press [2ND] then [CALC] . Select “intersect” and press [ENTER] three times. The point of intersection gives the value of x for the indicated value of the function.

## Approximating the solution of an exponential equation

Solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}42=1.2{\left(5\right)}^{x}+2.8\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ graphically. Round to the nearest thousandth.

Press [Y=] and enter $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}1.2{\left(5\right)}^{x}+2.8\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ next to Y 1 =. Then enter 42 next to Y2= . For a window, use the values –3 to 3 for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and –5 to 55 for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ Press [GRAPH] . The graphs should intersect somewhere near $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x=2.$

For a better approximation, press [2ND] then [CALC] . Select [5: intersect] and press [ENTER] three times. The x -coordinate of the point of intersection is displayed as 2.1661943. (Your answer may be different if you use a different window or use a different value for Guess? ) To the nearest thousandth, $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x\approx 2.166.$

Solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}4=7.85{\left(1.15\right)}^{x}-2.27\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ graphically. Round to the nearest thousandth.

$x\approx -1.608$

## Graphing a stretch or compression

While horizontal and vertical shifts involve adding constants to the input or to the function itself, a stretch or compression occurs when we multiply the parent function $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={b}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ by a constant $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}|a|>0.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ For example, if we begin by graphing the parent function $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}f\left(x\right)={2}^{x},$ we can then graph the stretch, using $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a=3,$ to get $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}g\left(x\right)=3{\left(2\right)}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ as shown on the left in [link] , and the compression, using $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a=\frac{1}{3},$ to get $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}h\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{3}{\left(2\right)}^{x}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ as shown on the right in [link] .

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