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Phosphorous based acids

Furnishable hydrogen ions of acids

Equivalent weight of a base

The valence factor of a base is equal to its acidity. The acidity of a base is equal to furnishable hydroxyl ion (OH-) in its aqueous solution. With this background, we define equivalent weight of a base as :

Equivalent weight , E = Molecular weight of base Acidity

Acidity of KOH is 1, whereas acidity of C a O H 2 is 2. Hence, equivalent weight of KOH is (39 + 16 + 1)/1 = 56/1 = 56. Similarly, equivalent weight of C a O H 2 is {40 + 2X(16+1)}/2 = 74/2=37.

Equivalent weight of a compound

The valence factor of a compound depends on the manner a compound is involved in a reaction. The compounds of alkali metal salts and alkaline earth metal salts are, however, constant. These compounds are ionic and they dissociate in ionic components in aqueous solution. In this case, valence factor is equal to numbers of electronic charge on either cation or anion.

Equivalent weight , E = Molecular weight of compound Numbers of electronic charge on cation or anion

The numbers of electronic charge on cation of N a H C O 3 is 1. Hence, equivalent weight of N a H C O 3 is (23 + 1 + 12 + 3X16)/1 = 84.

If we look at the defining ratio of equivalent weight of a compound (AB) formed of two radicals (say A and B), then we can rearrange the ratio as :

Equivalent weight, E = Molecular weight of Radical A Numbers of electronic charge + Molecular weight of Radical B Numbers of electronic charge

Thus,

Equivalent weight of AB = Equivalent weight of A + Equivalent weight of B

Equivalent weight of an ion

The valence factor of an ion is equal to numbers of electronic charge on the ion. Therefore, we define equivalent weight of an ion as :

Equivalent weight , E = Molecular weight of ion Numbers of electronic charge

The numbers of electronic charge on carbonate ion ( C O 3 2 - ) is 2. Hence, equivalent weight of carbonate ion is (12 + 3X16)/1 = 60/2 = 30. Similarly, equivalent weight of aluminum ion ( A l 3 + ) is 27/3 = 9.

Equivalent weight of an oxidizing or reducing agent

In a redox reaction, one of the reacting entities is oxidizing agent (OA). The other entity is reducing agent (RA). The oxidizer is recipient of electrons, whereas reducer is releaser of electrons. The valence factor for either an oxidizing or reducing agent is equal to the numbers of electrons transferred from one entity to another.

Equivalent weight , E = Molecular weight of compound Numbers of electrons transferred in redox reaction

Alternatively,

Equivalent weight , E = Molecular weight of compound Change in oxidation number in redox reaction

Potassium dichromate in acidic medium is a strong oxidizer. It means it gains electrons during redox reaction. Potassium dichromate in acidic solution results in :

K 2 C r 2 O 7 + 14 H + + 6 e 2 K + + 2 C r 3 + + 7 H 2 O

Equivalent weight of K 2 C r 2 O 7 = 294.2 6 = 49

Study of redox reaction is in itself an exclusive and extensive topic. We shall, therefore, discuss redox reaction separately.

Gram equivalent(geq)

It is equal to mass in grams numerically equal to equivalent weight. If the mass of a chemical entity is “g” grams, then the given mass contains gram equivalents given by :

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Stoichiometry. OpenStax CNX. Jul 05, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10540/1.7
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