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Gram equivalent (geq) = g E

This formula is widely used to express grams of substance in terms of gram equivalent and vice-versa.

Relation between moles and gram equivalents (geq)

Gram equivalents is given by :

geq = g E

Substituting for equivalent weight, we have :

geq = g E = x g M O

Moles is given by :

n = g M O

Combining expressions, we have :

geq = x n

gram equivalent = valence factor X moles

Gram equivalent concept

Consider the example of formation of water :

2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O

Here, 2 moles of hydrogen combines with 1 mole of oxygen to form 2 moles of water molecule. In terms of mass, 4 gm of hydrogen combines with 32 gm of oxygen to form 36 gm of water molecule. The relevant proportions involved with this equation are :

Coefficients of balanced equation = 2:1:2

Molecules/moles = 2:1:2

Mass = 4:32:36 = 1:8:9

On the other hand, equivalent weights of hydrogen, oxygen and water are 1, 8 and 9. Clearly, proportion of mass in which chemical entities participate is exactly the proportion of equivalent weights! Note that mole concept depends on the coefficient of balanced chemical equation. On the other hand, the equivalent weight concept is independent of coefficient of balanced chemical equation. If we know that hydrogen and oxygen combines to form water molecule, then we can say straightway that entities are in the proportion of equivalent weights - without any reference to coefficients in the balanced chemical equation.

equivalent weight of hydrogen equivalent weight of oxygen equivalent weight of water

Note that there is no mention of coefficients of balanced chemical equation in the equivalent weight relation. We should, however, understand that two techniques of analyzing chemical reactions are essentially equivalent. We need to consider coefficients involved in balanced chemical equation for applying mole concept. On the other hand, coefficients are not considered when using equivalent weight concept, but we need to know the corresponding valence factor of each entity. It is important to realize that above relation is not a relation connected by "equal to (=)" sign. Rather, they are connected by equivalent sign (≡). As such, we still need to apply unitary method to analyze the relation.

Gram equivalent concept is a step head in this context. The gram equivalents of participating entities are same. For the case of formation of water, the proportion of mass of hydrogen, oxygen and water is 1 gm: 8 gm : 9 gm. Now, we know that the gram equivalents of entities are obtained by dividing mass by equivalent weight. Hence, gram equivalents of three entities are 1/1 = 1, 8/8=1 and 9/9 = 1. Thus, gram equivalents of participating entities are same. If gram equivalents of hydrogen is 2, then gram equivalents of oxygen and water will also be 2. As such :

x gm equivalents of hydrogen = x gm equivalents of oxygen = x gm equivalents of water

Significant aspect of this relation is that it is connected with equal to (=) sign and as such relieves us from applying unitary method altogether.

Problem : 100 gm of a mixture nitrates of two metals A and B are heated to constant weight of 50 gm, containing corresponding oxides of the metals. The equivalent weights of A and B are 103 and 31 respectively. What is the percentage composition of A and B in the mixture.

Solution : Here, we make use of the fact that :

Equivalent weight of metal nitrate = Equivalent weight of metal nitrate = Equivalent weight of metal + Equivalent weight of nitrate - radical


Equivalent weight of nitrate of A = 103 + 14 + 3 X 16 1 = 103 + 62 = 165

Equivalent weight of oxide of A = 103 + 16 2 = 103 + 8 = 111

Equivalent weight of nitrate of B = 31 + 62 = 93

Equivalent weight of oxide of B = 31 + 8 = 39

Let the mass of A in the mixture be x gm. Then mass of B is 100-x gm. Applying concept of equivalent weight concept to chemical reaction,

165 gm of nitrate of A yields 111 gm of A’s oxide. Therefore, x gm of A’s nitrate yields :

mass of A’s oxide = 111 x 165 = 0.67 x


mass of B’s oxide = 39 100 x 93 = 0.42 X 100 0.42 x = 42 0.42 x

According to question,

0.67 x + .42 X 100 0.42 x = 50

0.25 x = 50 42 = 8

x = 32 g m

Mass of A = x = 32 g m

Mass of B = 100 x = 68 g m

Thus, mixture contains 32 % of A and 68 % of B.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, Stoichiometry. OpenStax CNX. Jul 05, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10540/1.7
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